Saturday, September 4, 2010

Saturday, July 10, 2010

Fallen Art

Who Brought The Mayans To Mexico?

                                                         Who Brought The Mayans To Mexico?
                        Were the ancient Turks, Akkads (Sumerians) and Dravidians (Tamils) the parents of Mexico and Meso-America?

By Gene D. Matlock


  The time is about 1,500 BC. A fleet of Tamil ships in some harbor of the Konkan or Kankon, a beautiful white sand coastline stretching from todayís Maharasthra to the southern tip of Western India, raises anchor and sails south to what is now the large island nation of Ceylon (todayís Sri Lanka). Their goal is to sail to Patala or what is now Mexico and Meso-America, leaving emigrant settlers there. During their stay in Ceylon, they recruit skilled stone workers, skilled craftsmen, and temple builders in the province of Maya, to build a new Tamil civilization over or alongside an Akkad-type (Sumerian) civilization that was already in Meso-America: that of the Olmecs or Olman.

[Right: A beach in the Konkan.]

  The ancient Tamils were international traders and colonizers. Wherever they went in the world, they left an unmistakable imprint of their presence, such as place names, foods, games, and temple buildings. Their temple buildings were usually zikharis (tiered or pyramidical temple platforms). Often, small entrances or temples were located on each tier, but not always. On the top tier, there was always a temple. On top if it often stood an ornate rectangular steeple. However, circular domes or single spires often stood on top of the temple as well. Zikharis usually varied in appearance, according to the Dravidian or Tamil-derived cultures of the host nations. But one thing never changed: the unmistakable presence of Tamil influence.

[Right: Zikharis in Konkan.]


 [Right: Kanchipuram Temple.]



Before continuing with this article, I must clarify who the Phoenicians really were. I first learned about these people who settled the earth, about whom modern man knows nearly nothing, from the 19th century British Orientalist George Rawlinsonís book, Phoenicia. He was considered as the leading authority on these hardy mariners. But even he was off base. He said that the Phoenicians had no definite homeland but occupied trading ports all over the Middle East. In the Western hemisphere, they were called Puni but did not usually answer to that name. Furthermore, he said they were a Mediterranean people. Yet, in studying Hindu history, I discovered that they also existed in Central Asia and India. But there, they were called Pani. Not even in India did they call themselves Pani.

In his brief but enlightening little book, The Rig Veda ñ a History, Bengali historian, Rajeswar Gupta, stated: ìÖin ancient times the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea were connected together by a strait through which the Phoenicians and Aryan trading ships entered the MediterraneanÖAs that passage silted up the connection between India and Europe broke off.î (p. 4.)

Had Professor Gupta been more acquainted with the Turkish-related nations in Central Asia, he wouldíve realized that the Phoenicians and Aryans were the same people. The Phoenicians in the Middle East eventually lost their awareness of being Dravidians, separating themselves in many small city coastal states.

Even today, the Turkish peoples call themselves Ari. The forefathers of the Turkish peoples also called themselves Pancha (Five) Krishtayas (The Original Five Races of Mankind).

Like me, Professor Gupta intuited that the Phoenicians had originated in Central Asia. Herodotus, the Greek Historian, did not mention the Phoenicians as being a disorganized collection of city states, but as a single political entity. I intuited that the original Phoenicia was Anatolia (Turkey) and Bulgaria. Greece was at one time a part of Phoenicia but later broke away. Even now the Greeks are a great sea people as are the Turks. As a matter of fact, the famed Piri Reis 6000 years old map of the world was made from older Turkish maps. The Mercateur map is another example.


If the Panis or Punis did not call themselves by those names, what do those similar terms mean? This anomaly perplexed me because the word exists in nearly all the languages of the world, even in Meso-America. It is a fact that Panama was named after them because it was and is a passage allowing boats to cross it. To find out what the term Pani meant, I consulted the book, The Civilized Demons, the Harappans in Rig Veda, by Malati J. Shendge: ìThey participated in the international trade, taking the caravans from place to place, supplying goods according to demand by bringing them from places where they were in surplus. (p. 222.) In short, it means ìtraffic; moving from one place to another.î The same meaning is found in the Nahuatl language: pan (external location); pano; opano (crossing to the other side), etc. (See Angel Maria Garibayís Llave del Nahuatl.) Even in our English language, the prefix ìpanî means roughly the same thing: ìall-encompassing; everywhere, etc.î


Many people find it difficult to accept that even the Akkad or Sumerians were Turkish. The Akkads (Sumerians) were Phoenicians. known also as Kads, Khatti, etc., Originally, they were a Turkish (Kur, Tur, Tul, Tol, etc.) people from what our Bible calls Eden, the Akkadian word for the Steppes (Central Asia). Before the Great Flood, the Steppes or Eden was regarded as an earthly paradise. However, when the Great Flood inundated what are now the Altai, Tannu (Tiva, Teva, or Tuva), and Khakassia Turkish republics, the survivors had to build their civilization all over again. Many fled to what is now India, becoming Indians themselves, joining the eastern part of the Northern and southern hemisphere as a single nation.

Many of the post-flood tribes had been reduced to savagery. The Aryans or Kurs (Turks) could not rehabilitate them. A Bulgarian king, known in Indian mythology as the god of gold, good fortune and treasure, Kubera (Khyber, Kheever, or the biblical Heber) decided to banish them to Lanka. He and his followers, the Yakhus or Yakshas, thought they would thrive more peacefully in that fertile, tropical country. However, not even there would they civilize themselves. With the exception of the Mayans of Altai and some Huna (Hunnish or Mongol) tribes, most of the incorrigible nomadic tribes, called Rakshasas and Pisacas, preferred to exist in the depths of degradation.

The Kubera people were called Nagas or Chans because the snake was their emblem. According to the Ramayana, they peopled the world, taking about 10,000 years to do so. Kubera and his Yakhsas, along with the Mayans I have already mentioned, then killed as many Rakshasas and Pisacas as possible, taking the survivors to Patala.

In his book, Remedy the Frauds in Hinduism, historian Kuttikhat Purushothoma Chon mentioned the Siberian origin of the Mayans. ìMaya architects are mentioned in our epic Mahabharata. Maya people are in Siam and East Asia. There is a place called Mayyavad in Kerala. The Uttar Pradesh people have the meaning of Mayya as mother in phrases like ëGanga ki Mayya.í There is a vast area in Russian East Siberia as well as a river by name Maya.î (p. 28.)

The Cologne Sanskrit Lexicon defines the Maya as mathematicians (measurers), astronomers, military strategists, magicians, wise-men, and builders. Our Mesoamerican Mayans definitely fit this description.

Malati J. Shendge said that the Panis, Asuras, Yakshas, and Mayans were partners in a common cause.


Russian scientists have recently discovered that the DNA of people from the Siberian Khakassia and Altai regions bordering on Tuva (also known as Tannu, Tiva and Teva). The Mayans are supposed to have originated in Altai. Later, the Kubera hordes took them to Ceylon where they became a great people. To date, little research has been done on the DNA of the Tuvans. The Russian scientists believe that the people of Tuva may have even a higher DNA match with Amerindians. All that is remaining now is to test the DNA of Mayans in other Asian lands, also that of our own Mayans, the Inca Nahua, Maya, and Mayo clans, as well as that of the Mexican Yaquis (Yakhs?) and Mayo (Maya)-two tribes speaking the same language.


Malati J. Shendge says that the Asura empire governed the Indus Valley (Western India): ìÖthese peoplesÖwere well-versed in agriculture, technology, engineering, sea-faring and trade and had established a control on river waters by setting up dams and irrigation canals.î (The Civilized Demons, p. 289,) Within this context, even the Phoenicians were Asuras.


That the Aryans living in the coastal lands of Western India were dark-skinned Dravidians, there is no doubt. Arrian said in his book Indica: ìThe inhabitants upon the Indus are in their looks and appearance not unlike the Ethiopians. Those upon the southern coast resemble them the most, for they are very black, and their hair is also black; but they are not so flat-nosed, nor have they woolly hair. They, who are more to the north, have a great resemblance to the Egyptians.î

A certain Hindu nationalist group has tried to convince the Hindus that the so-called ìAryan invasionî was a white Europoid lie in order to oppress non-whites. However, they cannot explain why the one hundred fifty million people living in the Turkish-related nations still call themselves Ari (Aryan). Additionally, Krishtayas claimed to be all the races of mankind.

[Right: A group of Tamils honoring my friend T. L. Subash Chandra Bose at a religious meeting. He is the man in the background, wearing a garland of flowers.]

 Dr. Polyat Kaya, a Turkish professor of historical linguistics, wrote: ìPre-Iranian culture was Turanian culture and civilization before theAryans. Indus civilization was also a Turanian culture like the Sumerian culture was. Dravidian being related to these ancient cultures ties them all together and also to Turkish. They are all agglutinative languages although historians and linguists are conditioned not to mention the name Tur/Turk.î (Istanbul

The traditional garb of Dravidian men has not changed in thousands of years. Like the ancient Assyrians, they wear long flowing skirts reaching to their ankles.

Many scholars agree that Asura was Assyria, an empire extending from West-Central Asia down to the tip of Southwestern India. If I am correct in assuming that the Dravidians were the Asuras, they are mentioned in Genesis as Ashur, son of Shem. (Genesis 10:22.)

The ancient Phoenicians claimed that they originally came from the lands alongside the ìErythean Sea.î The ìErythean Seaî is now the Arabian Ocean,î extending from Pakistan throughout all the western coast of India.


The Olmecs or Olman were the first civilization in Meso-America. Although there are abundant physical and linguistic artifacts of their existence, only the Nahuatl-speaking tribes and the Mayans knew something about the Olmecs or Olman as a people. For certain, we know that they were Turks because Olmak and Olman are the Turkish names for Adam. Perhaps they called themselves thusly because they were the first inhabitants of Mexico.

[Right: Artistís idea of what the ancient Olmec city of La Venta looked like.]

       The Olmecs supposedly entered Western Mexico in boats, crossing the then navigable Isthmus of Tehuantepec. They first settled on the east coast of Veracruz by the river Papaloapan. The Nahuatl-speaking people couldnít pronounce ìB.î Papaloapan was probably Babalu-apan (Babylonian Crossing).

The Olmecsí Zikhari (Temple Mounts) were similar to those of the Sumerian Zigurrats and with virtually the same name: Zicualli and Zacualli. Because the Nahuatl tribes couldnít say ìL,î it was probably a dialectical version of Zigurrat: Zicuari.

 [Left: A central Asian Ziggurat with upper elevations eroded by centuries.]

 Hundreds of years after settling on the coast, they moved in to the central highlands of Mexico and as far northward as the present-day state of San Luis Potosi. Traces of them may eventually be found as far as Southwestern United States.

As they multiplied and spread out, they eventually forgot they were Olmecs and Olman. About all they could remember is that they came to America in boats: Nava or Nauvak (Nahua or Nauwak), ìship people.î

Eventually, Nauvak changed to Anauwak (no longer ship people). Even today, the Nahuatl word Anahuac means ìbetween two waters.î The Nahuatl-speaking tribes also called themselves Toltec, derived from Toltika, meaning ìSons of Tulan or Turan.î When the Spaniards arrived in Mexico, the Aztecs called them ìTules,î thinking they, too, were Turks.


[Above: Map of Tula in Siberian Russia. Did the Aztecs come from this Tula?]

They and the Sumerians prayed to the same mother goddess:


Southern Persia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan had several different names: Sivapuri (The Region of God Shiva), Sivabhu (Sacred Land of Shiva), Sivapuni (The Purity of Shiva), and Shivulba (The Womb, Origin, or Cave of Shiva). The Pueblo Indians called their underworld or place of origin Sibapu or Sibapuni; for the Mayans, it was Shibalba, their "underworld" and place of the gods. The linguistic and functional similarities of the Hindu Sivabhu, Sivapuni, and Shivulba with the Puebloan Sibapu, Sivapuni, and the Mayan Shivalba (Xibalba) are too nearly exact to be coincidences.

[Right: The "Sumerian" Statue in Tepoztlan, Morelos.]

A Tepe was a low, steep hill surrounded by a village. The Tepe was used both as a fortress in case of attack and as a religious center honoring the villageís special deity-often a mother goddess. A few of the many hundreds of Tepes scattered over Sivabhu, even into the Middle East, are Tepe Yaya, Tepe Ya, Tepe Kilize, Tepe Liman, Tepe Catal, Tepe Godin, Tepe Cora, etc.

Mexico is the only region outside the Middle East and Central Asia, where we find hundreds of these combination protective and holy hills called Tepes. Some of these are Tepatit·n, Tuxtepec, Tepec, Tepic, Mazatepec, Tepetatas, Tepantita, Tepetzintla, Tepuste, Tepetlix, Tepetlalco, ad infinitum.

In ancient Sivabhu, the deities located at the tops of these tepes were called Yah, Yakh, Yakhu, Yaksha, Yakshi etc., meaning ìGuardian Angel.î The leading Mexican Yakshi (female guardian angel) had her sanctuary atop what is now Tepeyac (Hill of the Guardian Angel) in Mexico City. She is now the Virgin of Guadalupe.

Eventually, the non-Olmec tribes in Mexico, if there were ever any at all, copied their civilization after them. The Aztecs claimed that they had once lived in what are now the Florida Cays. When their city went under water, a sea-faring group saved them, dumping them on the Mexican mainland. In their annals, they said they adopted the civilization of the people already there.

The Nahuatl-speaking tribes and the Mayans told the Spaniards that a people called Tamoan-chan or Tamuan-chan also mixed with the Olmecs. These would be people from some part of Oceania, such as Samoa or New Zealand. (See Garibayís Llave del Nahuatl.) The word ìChanî meant ìPlace of Snakesî

In the 1950s, I visited a strange rock formation near Tepoztlan, Morelos, resembling a badly eroded Sumerian statue. Some people think it is just a natural formation, but I do not. There are other man-made formations near it, that are definitely not Aztec.


I am now ready to return to the hypothetical voyage of Tamils to America. They probably used two types of maps. The map below-left shows Mt. Meru with petals pointing in four directions. The left petal points toward a distant land called Ketumal or Chetumal. In order to reach that land, they had to go eastward in order to avoid sailing around the tip of Africa. They knew where they were going, for they had been there before! The map below-right was their own map of the world.

The Mayans said that the land of their forefathers lay 150 days westward.

When the Tamils arrived in North America, they crossed over to what is now the Caribbean Sea, through the Isthmus of Panama (The Great Crossing). After coming out the other side, they docked in the safe harbor of Chetumal. It still bears the same name. Chetumal harbor is in Belize. Belize derives from Belisha (God Shiva).
[Right: Photo of Chetumal harbor in Belize.]

Later, they left Chetumal, sailing up the coast to a place reminding them of the beauty of their old home in Konkan. They dropped anchor and made their first home in America there. Not surprisingly, they decided to name their new home Kankun (Cancun). After thousands of years, the last syllable has barely changed in pronunciation.

[Left: Beach scene in Tulum, Cancun area. Right: Map showing their voyage from Chetumal to Cancun.]

When the Tamils settled in Yucat·n, they built their typical zikharis, such as those of Tikal and Palenque. At Tikal, they stained their stone monuments a reddish color, just as they had done back in the Konkan.
[Left: A Tikal Zikhari. Right: A Pelenque Zikhari.]

People are surprised to see stone images of elephants in Mayan country, such as the following one in Copan. It may be a reminder of the elephants in India.

[Right: Stone etching of a Hindu mahout, complete with turban, riding on the head of an elephant.]

 Some authorities, who do not agree with me that the Mayans came from abroad, think Southern Mexico once had elephants. The truth is that they worshiped a long-nosed god (Chac) or elephant, just as the Hindu Tamils worshiped the elephant-headed Ganesha in India.

Chak was the long-nosed Mayan God of thunder, lightning, rain, and crops. His elephantine trunk sprayed water on the earth. His equivalent in other parts of the world was Zeus, Dyaus, Jupiter, Ca, Jah, Ju, Jahve, Jehova Jeho, Sakh, Sagg, Sa-ga-ga, Sakko, Zagg, Zax. a.k.a. Zeus, is often depicted holding a serpentine thunderbolt and a grail, or someone is handing it to him. The Mayan Chak is equally depicted.

                                                                      The Mayan god Chac.


They gave several names that directly and indirectly identified Ceylon: Shilanka (Xilanca) - an ancient name of Ceylon (Zeilan-Ka).

Shikalanka (Xicalanca) - Ceylon. In Tamil, Shikalam.

Itzamna was one of their culture heroes. He claimed to have come from a western country. Isham, meaning 'Tiger, ""Land of Gold," was a Dravidian name of Ceylon. The Na in Isham-na is an honorific.

Ishbalanka (Xbalanca), another culture hero. In Tamil, it means "Shiva of Lanka." India's God Shiva was supposed to have made the footprint on top of Adam's Peak in today's Sri Lanka.

Shibalba, The Mayan underworld. This word stems From the Sanskrit Shivulba, meaning ìfrom the fountainhead of God Shiva-Mt. Meru, in India.î

Palenke (Palenque). This name derives from the Tamil Pal-Lanka, meaning "Protectorate of Lanka." Ancient Lanka was Indiaís ìAtlantis.î

The Yaxilan (Yakshilan) Mayan ruins. This name means ìThe Ceylon Yakhsî in Sanskrit.

Ceren, a name of Ceylon. Some Mayan ruins in El Salvador are called Ceren.

Lacandon, a tribe of Yucatan. India's god Kubera banished the Laks, a Tartarian Huna or Rakshasha tribe from Northern India to Ceylon, giving the country one of its many names and becoming the Lakan or Lakam people. The Don in Lacan-don derives from Dan (Tannu or Dannu?). (See the online Cologne Sanskrit and Tamil dictionaries for comparison of ancient Ceylon names with those of Mayan tribes and places.)


Ancient Ceylon was divided into three provinces: Maya, the central division of the island; Ruhuna (Soul of Huna Land), and Pihitee, the northernmost of the three. The Ceylonese Maya were known for their impressive astronomical knowledge, architectural marvels, temples, and irrigation ponds. (Reference: The History of Ceylon, by William Knighton, first published in Colombo Ceylon, in 1845.)

One of the names of Ceylon's cult religions was Mayon. It still exists among a few aboriginals living on the island.

Most of the Rakshasa and Pisaca bad boys were Tartarian Hunas, They came from Huna-Bhu, meaning ìHunas (Tartars) from the Sacred Land around Mt. Meru.î Many of these tribes were cannibalistic, given to intertribal fighting, practitioners of human sacrifice in their religious rites, flattened the foreheads of their babies, took scalps in battle, and observed other customs attributed to many Amerindian tribes. The Mayans remember them as the culture hero, Hunapu (Huna-Bhu?).

Had the natives of Meso-America been able to pronounce the "ST" combination, today's Yucatan would be Yucasthan (Yakhuthan?). Even today, many Mexican Indians and peasants cannot pronounce this combination. For example, instead of CÛmo est·? (How are you?), they can only say, "øCÛmo t·?"

Guatemala derives from Sanskrit Guadhaamala, meaning Guha (Cosmic Intelligence) + Dha (Serpentine) + Amala (Umbilical Cord), the Sacred Umbilical Cord Linking Western Asia and India with Meso-America. Besides the Ceylonese and Tamil tribal names Yakkha, Maya, and Lak in Maya country, there are also the Lenca and Rama tribes. The Mayan lowlands are even called Guanacaste, meaning The Western Enlightened Nagas. It is assumed that the Olmecs spoke Nahuatl because of the place-names they left behind. The Olmecs called the Maya country in Southeastern Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos (Snake Sanctuary). Snake Sanctuary was none other than the home of the Western or American Nagas.

ìOriginally, the Asuras or Nagas were not only a civilized people, but a maritime powerÖ,Kadru, the mother of serpents, compelled Garuda (the Eagle or Hawk) to serve her sons by transporting them across the sea to a beautiful land, which was inhabited by Nagas. The Asuras (Nagas) were expert navigators who possessed very considerable naval resources and had founded upon distant coasts.î (The Encircled Serpent by M. Oldfield, p. 47.)

Even today, the Mexican flag has an Eagle with a serpent in its mouth, representing the arrival of the ancient Mexicans to Meso-America. It also represents the arrival of the Meshika to what is now Mexico City.

[Right: Mexican flag.]   
The Tamils and all the tribes of Meso-America, from Mexico to Panama, played the same board game: Pachesi. The Meso-Americans called it by a linguistically similar name: Patolli. (Note: CH and T are linguistically similar. LL was the only way the Renaissance Spaniards could approximate the sounds of Z and J. This proves that Patolli derived from Pachesi.) I myself saw a Patolli board game at the National Museum of Costa Rica, in San Jose.

 [Above Left: Mr. Subash Bose displays an ancient Tamil Pachesi board kept as a relic in the temple of his area. The Tamils and all the tribes of Meso-America, from Mexico to Panama, played the same board game: Pachesi. Right

: The Meso-Americans called it by a linguistically similar name: Patolli. (Note: CH and T are linguistically similar. LL was the only way the Renaissance Spaniards could approximate the sounds of Z and J. This proves that Patolli derived from Pachesi.) I myself saw a Patolli board game at the National Museum of Costa Rica, in San Jose.]


The Tamils and Turks even gave some of their favorite dishes to the ancient Mexicans, and with the same names! I will name just two of them: Tamales and Corundas. The ancient Tamils were known as Tamils or Tamals. One of their favorite foods was a type of paste or filling wrapped in bamboo husk. Even in Tamil Nadu it is called Tamal. The Michoacanos have a similar triangular shaped tamal called Corunda. In Turkic it would be kur-unda (Turkic dough).

My Tamil Nadu friend, Mr. Subash Bose, pointed out to me the fact that Hindus often worship cobras and that the Mayans worshipped rattlesnakes. He said that Mayan huts look exactly like those in Tamil Nadu.

The Kuberas even gave their name to North America. The Meso-Americans told the Spaniards that North America was Quivira (Land of the Khyber People).

Most of us have heard of the Mayan holy book, Chilam Balam. Chilan or Chilam is a title of Mayan priests. Balam is the Mayan name for Jaguar. In Sanskrit, Cheilan = Ceylonese and Vyalam = tiger; lion; hunting leopard. ìJaguarî probably stems from the Sanskrit Higkara, meaning Tiger-like or ìsounding like a tiger.î

The Mayans called their ìQuetzalcoatlî Kukulcan and Gukumats. These names appear to derive directly from the Turkic language. Kuk or Gok derived from the Turkic Gog and Gok, names of ancient Turkish tribes. Ulu means ìhigh placed.î Mats derives from Masi, the Turkic word for ìMessiah.î Khan is a Turkic word for ìKing.î Therefore, Kukulcan=Gogulkhan (The Revered King of Gog.) Gukumats=Gokumasi (The Revered Gok Messiah).

The presence of Dravidian, Turkic, and Sanskrit words in America shouldnít surprise anyone, for the Aryans and Indians (Ramanaka) traveled together throughout the world. In his book, El OrÌgen de los Indios, the Spanish priest, Gregorio PÈrez, wrote that the Caribbean Indians said that their founding fathers were the Kuru-Rumani.

Some Dravidians think Sanskrit sprang from Dravidian, but my research does not indicate this. Many of the Turks also spoke Aramaic, for at one time it was more generally spoken than it is now. The Turkish linguist, Professor Polyat Kaya, states that such languages as Sanskrit, Dravidian, Hebrew, Chinese, and many others are anagrams derived from Turkish. He also said that the Mayan language derives from Turkish.

In this article, I have just presented a tiny part of the evidence in my possession, pointing to the Indian and Ceylonese origins of the Mayans. I have decided to end this article by recounting what the Jesuit priest Francisco Xavier Clavigero wrote in Volume I of his Historia Antigua de Messico (Ancient History of Mexico). Clavigero said that the Chiapaneco Mayans told him that a grandson of Noah, Votan, took people to people America. He was from the Chan (Naga or Serpent) tribe. They said that he came from the East, bringing seven groups with him. Two other leaders (Groups?) had also previously brought in settlers: Igh and Imox. He built a great city, now known as Palenque, call ìNauchan,î meaning City of the Serpents. When Noah emerged from the Ark, he and his people built their first city, calling it Nashan (The Noachide Chan).

Votan founded three tributary monarchies called Tulan, Mayapan, and Chiquimala. The ruins of Tulan are those of Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Mayapan is the Yucatan peninsula itself. I have not yet located the region of Chiquimala. Perhaps it is Guatemala or the Mayan province of Tzequil.

Like many Europoids ignorant of India and its history, Clavigero tried to place them in Cartagena, Africa, Rome, and even Spain. But he at least intuited that the early Mayan settlers were Phoenicians.

Had he been more knowledgeable about ancient India and Ceylon, he would have known that they were Ceylonese, for in Tamil, VALAM POTAM means ìPlace of Boats.î Valam Potan (Ceylon) was located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, where the trade winds are. The differences between Valum Votan and Valam Potam are trivial.

Notice the following map showing the sea and land routes of the ancient Tamils. Below it, youíll notice the words Oceanus Indicus (Indian Ocean). The ancient maps which the Spaniards used to get to America showed the same terms: Mar Indica; Oceanus Indica. From where did they obtain those maps showing that the eastern end of Oceanus Indica was America?

                         Map showing the land and sea routes of the ancient Tamils
The stone heads staring at the sea, from the shores of Easter Island, tell us a lot about the ancient sailors theyíre supposed to represent. Notice their ìheadpieces.î Could they be Tamil turbans?


                                         The stone heads of Easter Island.


Many people donít know that the Mayans and Toltecs werenít the only immigrants who entered the Americas through Chetumal, the ìPlymouth Rockî of many American Indians. I can name several United States Indian tribes who also landed there. Their origin stories say so in plain words.

In view of what I have said in this article, who is better qualified to identify the origins of our American Indians? Our Europoid academics? Or the Turks, Hindus, and American Indians?

All kinds of speculations have been made, many mystical, about the ancient sea-farers known as Wotan, Woden, the German Wuotan, the Yap Island Paathan, and the Philipine Bataan. Even today, a large tribe of Pakistanis are called Pathan. Votan was never a single person. He was really a ìnation of sailors.î This ancient nation of sailors and adventurers is still with us: The Dravidian Tamils!
                                                      A Tamil ship.

As with Geneís Viewzone article about the biblical Mesechs, this article will also be a chapter in an upcoming book he is preparing about the origins of our Amerindians. His latest book, What Strange Mystery Unites the Turkish Nations, India, Catholicism, and Mexico?, can also provide interested readers with some fascinating insights about the ancient world.

Reference taken from:

Thursday, July 8, 2010

An Introduction to the History of Tamil People

Religious Traditions of the Tamils

Prof. A. Veluppillai

1. Introduction.

The Tamils can be defined as people, having Tamil as their mother tongue. Tamil language is a member of the Dravidian/ South Indian family of languages. The four southernmost states of India- tamiz Nadu, kERaLa, karNAdaka, and Andra Pradesh- are predominantly linguistically Dravidian, each state carved out on the basis of predominance of the four major Dravidian languages. The Dravidian languages are mother tongues of about a quarter of the Indian population. Though about 80% of the speakers are found within the borders of these four South Indian states, a number of Dravidian languages have been identified in other parts of South Asia. Among the tribal languages of Central India, almost extending to the borders of Bengal, distinct from the Austro-Asiatic family of languages, many Dravidian languages have been identified. The northern reaches of this family have been located in isolated settlements in Nepal and Pakistan. The Brahui speakers are found in the hills of Baluchistan, almost on the borders of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. So, the Dravidian family of languages is a South Asian family of languages in one sense. About 22 languages are classified as belonging to the Dravidian family and on linguisic criteria, sub-division as North, Central and South Dravidian are made. Tamils alone number about 60 million people.

South India and Sri Lanka have been homelands of the Tamils, from the beginning of recorded history. The region, roughly covered by the modern states of tamiz NAdu and Kerala are identified as ancient tamizakam up to about 10th century AD. Even though some evidence exists for Tamil influence , and Tamil presence in Sri Lanka is noticeable from very early times, strong Tamil presence and influence in Sri Lanka, from about the 10th century. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Tamils migrated to some British colonies in search of employment and thus there are substantial Tamil populations in Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Fiji and South Africa. After the World War II, a movement of Tamil professionals to UK, USA, Australia and New Zealand is proceeding continuously. Due to the recent civil war type situation in Sri Lanka, many thousands of Tamils in about 20 countries, with large numbers in Canada, Germany, France, and Switzerland. Within the Nordic countries, Norway and Denmark have more Tamils than Sweden.

2. Present Situation regarding religious affiliations of the Tamils.

Hinduism, Christianity and Islam are the major religions among the Tamils in that order: Hindus are counted as forming more than 80% of the population and the other religions are reckoned to be less than 20% of the population. Some of the other religions like Jainism, Buddhism have relatively few adherents. The Tamil Christians include both Roman Catholics as well as the Protestants. The Muslims are mainly Sunni. The situation is fairly stable, only Christian missions, said to be marginally successful in making new converts. The general atmosphere is religious toleration and harmony.

The official policy of India is secularism,,,. Overall, Hinduism is neither a missionary nor an exclusive religion. To put it in a negative way, the Hindus withdraw into themselves and don't react except when they feel threatened. Many scholars have commented on the tolerant attitude of the Hindus. Some recent developments in India challenges this view. But tamiz Nadu and the Tamils, generally keep up the Tamil tradition of tolerance, There is no Hindu extremism worth mentioning among the Tamils. No serious claim is put forward that Hinduism should have special privileges, compared to other religions.

3. The Dravidian Hypothesis about the people of the Indus valley Civilization.

The Tamils have legends that their ancient history extends up to about ten thousand years, sea swallowing up their lands twice and kings establishing new capitals and fostering Tamil in three successive academies. The legend is first mentioned in the commentary of kaLavijal, which is assigned to about 8th century AD. This legend is one of the reasons- one of the excuses- for connecting up the Tamil civilization with some prehistoric ancient civilizations, whose identity and continuity poses special problems.

The records of the Indus Valley Civilization have not been satisfactorily deciphered. Material remains have been interpreted by archeologists. There cannot be finality, till a satisfactory reading of the records. Material remains are generally interpreted in the light of elements in the later Hinduism. Siva worship in the form of pacupati and NadaRajA, Sakti worship and some other deductions are made. In the 1950s, Father Heras argued for the Dravidian identity of the Indus Valley people. In the 1960s, the Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies issued many announcements, trying to establish this identity. This hypothesis is still defended seriously by Japanese Professor Noboru Karashima, President of the International Association for Tamil Research in 1994.

4. The Dravidian Identity of the Sumerians.

This is another hypothesis that is strongly advocated by certain scholars. The Sumerian records have been deciphered and material remains have been interpreted satisfactorily. Linguistic and cultural affinities between the Sumerians and the Tamils, separated by much more than a millennia, are pointed out. The late Professor A. catAcivam (A.Sathasivam) from Sri Lanka and Dr. ulakaNAtan muttarAjan (Loganathan Muttarayan) from Malaysia are examples. Eminent historians of the caliber of K.A. Nilakanda cAttiri (Nilakantta Sastri), have pointed out similarities in temple worship. A hypothesis, connecting the ancestors of the Dravidians, if not the Tamils. to the Mediterranean area, is still advocated by certain scholars.

5. A study based on the historical times.

Literary, epigraphical and archeological sources existt for the study of religious traditions of the Tamils for about 2000 years. As materials exist for such a long period of time, it is only fitting that we pay just passing attention to doubtful prehistoric connections and concentrate on the historical period. Tamil is one of the two classical languages of India, along with Sanskrit. There are Tamil literary texts and Tamil inscriptions, dated roughly, round about the beginning of the Christian era. As in most of ancient and medieval Indian texts, controversies exist on the exact dates of early Tamil records and documents. We have to be dependent on rough calculations and the most probable dates. Some distinct historical periods: (1) 100 B.C to 300 A.D.; (2) 300 A.D. to 600 A.D.; (3) 600 A.D. to 1200 A.D.; (4) 1200 A.D. to 1800 A.D.; and (5) 1800 A.D. to today.

5.1 cangkam (Academy) period.

The general designation for the early period is cangkam period, because of the strong tradition that three academies existed in the remote past and that what we get as early literary texts were those approved by those academies. The main source for the early period is literary evidence. From a study of the literary evidence, some scholars argue that the Tamil society was secular then. It is only a relative term in the sense that when compared to early North Indian literature and later Tamil literature, a distinctiveness of relative secularism can be pointed out.

Some indigenous elements of religion, peculiar to the Tamils, have been noticed in the earliest available stratum of Tamil literature. A portion of this early Tamil poetry is identified as Heroic poetry. There were three Tamil Kingdoms - cEra, cOLa and pAnhdija - and many independent chieftaincies in the early period and there were intermittent and internecine wars and battles for violent state formation. maRam (valour) was the celebrated theme.

5.1.1. Nadukal (planted stone).

The worship for the fallen brave warriors is one of the popular forms of worship in early Tamil poetry. tolkAppijam gives an elaborate description in six stages in the planting of stone, beginning with looking for a suitable stone and ending in the institution of formal worship. The portrait of the hero is often decorated with peacock feathers. Some poems refer to spears and shields erected around the planted stones. Offering of Naravam (toddy = alcohol) to the spirit of the fallen hero, represented in the planted stone, is mentioned in some verses.

5.1.2. veRijAdal (dance in ecstasy).

The dance in ecstasy is found mainly in the worship of murukan/muruku (youth, beauty, god-head). He was the god of the hilly region. The name of god or archetype was different in each landscape among the five different landscapes of the Tamil land. mAjOn (dark male)/ mAl (great one) was the god of the forest or pastoral landscape. koRRavy (lady of victory) was the goddess of ferocious appearance for the arid or waste land. vEl (spear) was the main weapon of murukan. He is a warrior-hero par excellence, but is often mentioned in akam (love) poetry, the other main theme of the earliest stratum of Tamil literature. Love-sickness of young girls in separation from their lovers seem to be generally interpreted as caused by murukan who needs propitiation in worship. The organizer and chief priest of the worship was vElan (man with spear). A number of verses refer to the sacrifice of the blood of ram and offering of toddy in the ritual. The veRijAdal occurred in koRRavy worship also, Later, murukan was considered son of koRRavy. A group dance of girls, known as kuravyjAdal, is also associated with murukan worship. Some elements of ecstasy were also involved in this dance. This dance occurred in mAjOn worship also. murukan has continued to be very popular among the Tamils and he is frequently hailed as the Tamil god. Kamil Zvelebil had chosen to name his first volume on Tamil literature, as The smile of murukan.

5.1.3. cinyc cuRAvin kOdu (pregnant Shark bone).

A solitary verse mentions this worship in the littoral region. On full moon day, fishermen and families get drunk and worship. This may be the peculiar worship of Nejtal, (littoral) landscape.

5.1.4. kanhdu (post, stone.)

This worship is often mentioned in connection with manRu (public meeting place). Lighting of lamps by women is specifically referred to in some verses. Floor of the manRu was smeared with cow-dung.

5.1.5. Influence of North Indian religious traditions.

Jaina monks lived in hills around maturai, the capittal of the pAnhdijAs and in a few other places. Early Tamil Brahmi inscriptions of round about the beginning of the Christian era, testify to this. Some kings and chieftains were responsive to Brahmins and Vedic sacrifices. Many instances can be quoted to show that beliefs in the existence of the ujir (soul), maRu piRappu (rebirth) and vAnOr ulaku (world of celestial beings) existed among the Tamils even in that early period.

5.2. Post-cangkam Period 300 A.D. to 600 A.D.

Politically in this period, the Tamils were under foreign kalabhra domination. Their political history is characterized by many historians as a dark period. Buddhism and Jainism appear to have prospered during this period. Some notable literary works are assigned to this period. The early Tamil kAppijangkaL, (epics) are assigned to this age, as for examples, cilappatikAram, a Jaina epic and manhimEkaly, a Buddhist epic. aRam, the equivalent of Sanskrit dharma , becomes the main theme of literary works. Eleven didactic works were written in this period. Their main purpose seems to be reformation of the society - bringing back values which were reversed during the Heroic Age.

tirukkuRaL the most outstanding work in Tamil, belongs to this period. This sets the tone of didactic works. According to Albert Schweitzer's evaluation in his book, Indian Thoughts and its Development, tirukkuRaL represents a synthesis of much of the best in Indian thought up to that time with a positive approach to life. The positive approach to life , also called life-affirmation, seems to owe its influence to the literary traditions of the Academy period. varnAcirama dharma, the central concept of the Brahminical religion, prescribing different rules for the four-fold castes and for the four stages of human life, has not even been mentioned in this work. This work is of universal appeal. The Tamil society never had the varnha system. There was no cattiryjAs, and the vycijAs. The ruling kings and their ancestors, were sometimes eulogized and flattered as the cattirijAs, but there was no consequent development from this position. The non-Brahmin high caste Tamils resented the term - cUttirAs, the name of the fourth caste. So, what we get in the Tamil works, equivalent to the Sanskrit dharmasastras, is sAmAnija dharma applicable to every human being. Religious affiliation of the author is not known.

ThiruvaLLuvar, the author, has kept himself clear of external trappings of different religions. The Hindus, the Jains, and the Buddhists have claimed this work as their own. Many Christian missionaries and British administrators have praised this work, even tracing Christian influence in the work. This work, consisting of 1330 verses, has been translated into many languages. Other didactic works, follow the lead by tirukkuRaL. The authors are identified as Jaina or Brahminical, mainly by their invocation verses. Otherwise, there are no deep differences in the contents of these works. NAladijAr the second most important work with 400 verses, ascribed to Jaina authorship and with a noticeable slant to life-negation, had been translated into English by G.U. Pope almost a century ago. tirukkuRaL and NAladijAr can be said to constitute the ethical core of the religious traditions of the Tamils. It is important to note here that varnAcirama dharma had not been brought into Tamil literature. Though the Tamils also developed an evil and pernicious caste system, in certain respects, quite distinct from the varnha system, in subsequent periods, that system had no sanction either in Tamil or in Sanskrit texts.

5.3. Bhakti Period 600 A.D. to 1200 A. D.

The Tamils were under the Pallava and the pAnhdija kingdoms during the earlier half of this period and under the cOLa Empire during the latter half of the same. The Tamil power reached its zenith under the cOLa Empire, which also ruled many non- Tamil communities in South India and Sri Lanka. In the history of religion and literature, this period is referred to as the bhakti period. Bhakti is a Sanskrit word, meaning devotion. This Sanskrit word and the Tamilicised form patti became popular quite late. The bhaktti poetry seems to be a curious transformation of literary traditions of the Academy period. Both akam tradition, dealing with love between man and woman and puRam tradition, dealing with heroism and generosity of warriors are combined in a strange manner and the position of man as well as hero goes to god, while the position of woman and hero-worshipper go to the devotee.

A. K. Ramanujan has recently brought out a good translation into English of some of these early poems. Though the origins of the concept of bhakti are traceable in Sanskrit sources, bhakti movement as such originated in the Tamil land. Personal relationship between the devotee and the god was its main characteristic, and worship became a fervent personal experience in response to divine grace. Religion for the devotees is no longer a matter of contemplation of a transcendent, impersonal absolute, but of ecstatic response to an intensely personal experience. This leads to a profound sense of the devotee s own shortcomings and to a trustful recourse to the god s forgiveness, with the whole personality being surrendered to the deity. It is this position which inspired the scholar - missionary G. U. Pope's evaluation - which seems to be somewhat superficial - of this religion as the religion, closest to Christianity, among Indian religions. Norman Cutler has worked on the poetics of Tamil devotion.

The vedic religion - the Brahminical religion - becomes a popular religion of the Tamils, through the bhakti movement. The Sanskrit sources contributed another important element for this religion. This religion owes a massive debt to the Sanskrit purAnhAs and epics. The temple rituals, prescribed in the Sanskrit AkamAs, became very important. From the very beginning, sectarian differences are noticeable, may be because of the influence of purAnhAs. Saiva and Vaishnava movements were presented to the Tamil people as Tamil religions This was made possible by religious synchronism. murukan becomes identified with Skanda and kArttikEja and related to Siva as a son, koRRavy becomes identified with umA, Siva's consort and as murukan s mother, and mAjOn becomes identified with Vishnu. Saivism is the form of Hinduism, very popular among the Tamils.

The Saiva movement was relatively more involved in religious conflicts and controversies. Saint Appar, a convert from Jainism to Saivism, converted the Pallava ruler from Jainism to Saivism. His poetry seems to be a strange mixture of Jaina world-view and Siva bhakti. Even though he expresses his regret for having wasted much of his life as a Jaina monk, his poetry seems to be a form of synchronism between Jainism and Saivism. The Jaina world-view and Jaina didactic works become acceptable to the Saivites. Saint Campanthar, a younger contemporary of saint Appar, converted the pAnhdija ruler from Jainism to Saivism.. He defeated the Buddhists in another controversy. As a Brahmin, he was a champion of Vedic religion against the Jains and the Buddhists. There are plenty of polemical references about the Jains and the Buddhists in his bhakti poetry. Saint Manikkavasagar was also said to have defeated the Lankan Buddhists in a controversy, but there is no trace of polemics in his compositions.

For about a millennium, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism were the three important religions among the Tamils. The triangular contest for the loyalty of the Tamils led to the growth of polemical literature to which adherents of all religions contributed. The Buddhist contribution is seen in the manhimEkaly and the kunhdalakEci, the Jaina contribution in the NIlakEci and the Saiva contribution in the civagnAnacittijAr. But overall, conflicts are rare, especially after Hinduism consolidated its position. The Saiva or Vaishnava rulers, were generally generous to all the Hindus, irrespective of their personal inclinations and also patronized the Jaina and Buddhist religious establishments of their subjects.

A very important text for Tamil Saivism is the periya purAnham, the Saiva hagiology of 63 NajanmAr, (saint lords), all of whom lived in South India and attained heaven through their bhakti to Siva. This work influenced vIra Saivism of Karnataka. Saint Manikkavasagar's devotional poems are acknowledged as the most moving in Tamil literature. G. U. Pope brought a translation of the tiruvAcakam into English. almost a century ago. Glenn Yocum has published a study of tiruvAcakam recently. The devotional poems of Saint cuNtarar, numbering about a tthousand verses, had been translated by David Shulman recently. The Twelve Sacred Books of the Tamil Saivas were complete in the 12th century A.D. For the vast majority of the Tamil Saivites, the basic works of their religion are these Twelve Sacred Books. They don't look to any Sanskrit work for guidance.

The Vaishnava bhakti movement was dominated by twelve AzvArs - those who contemplate deeply on Vishnu. They were authors of tivvijapirapaNtam (sacred composition) of four thousand verses. Compared to the saiva devotional poems, the Vaishnava devotional poems make greater use of akam tradition and less of puRam tradition of the classical period. Friedhelm Hardy had brought out a fine publication recently on the history of this movement. Some important saints are AdAL, kulacEkarar, tirumangky and NammAzvAr. The works of the last one are very important and are sometimes referred to as Tamil Vedas. Though less influential in Tamil land, the Vaishnavite bhakti movement exerted great influence throughout India, during the later periods.

The temple worship seems to be a prominent feature from the beginning of the bhakti movement. Temples, built of durable material, first rock-cut and then made of stone, made their appearance from the 8th century. Huge stone temples were built by the cOLa Emperors and their successors throughout tamizNAdu. The temples became the centres, around which many aspects of life of the people were organized. Architects and sculptors were needed in the construction activities. Music, dance, and drama were patronized by the Hindu temples. These temples were generally rich, having been owners of land other forms of wealthy. They employed people and helped them in times of distress. The big temples are still great pilgrim centres to which the Tamil Hindus from all over the world yearn to visit. Most of the big temples in tamiz Nadu have myths of their own. David Shulman has made an interpretation of these myths recently. The big temples are the main attraction for the modern tourists in tamiz NAdu.

5.4. Age of Religious Philosophy. 1200-1800 AD.

The beginnings of philosophical speculations in India are traced to the Upanishads, which originated in North India and which are in Sanskrit. Buddhism dominated the philosophical field for many centuries and South India began to make significant contributions. The definitely identifiable contribution from tamizNAdu can be said to start from the 8th century A.D. Many religious philosophical doctrines of South Indian origin have been written in Sanskrit, may be because that language was the lingua-franca throughout the South Asian sub-continent in that age. In the eighth century, Sanskrit the propounder of Advita (monoism) hailed from Kerala, a part of ancient Tamil land. His Vedanta philosophy assimilated much of the world-view of the Buddhists and gave it a new twist. He is said to have toured throughout the sub-continent and engaged in debates with the Buddhists. What he had taken over from Buddhism is said to have helped him to win over large number of adherents of Buddhism which was already in decay in India at that time.

In the eleventh-twelfth centuries, Ramanuja, the propounder of (Visistadvita-qalified monoism) hailed from the present tamizNAdu. He was strongly influenced by the Vaishnava bhakti literature, based on the Puranic religion. He was better received in Karnataka than in tamiz Nadu. Ramanuja wrote in Sanskrit, so his impact among the Tamils is relatively limited. The history of Vaishnavism in tamizNAdu becomes a little complicated as the later Vijayanagar Emperors and the Nayak kings who were mainly Telugu origin gave it sustenance. They patronized Sanskrit and gave importance to Sanskrit sources. Soon, there was a schism in tamizNAdu Vaishnavism into vadakaly, (northern school) and tenkaly, (southern school) sects. The southern school, looks mainly to the Tamil Vaishnava texts for inspiration.

The thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries saw the appearance of the fourteen works of Saiva Siddhanta philosophy in Tamil.The basic Tamil work is civagnanapOtam. There is still a big controversy on whether this work is a translation of twelve aphorisms from an obscure or unattested portion of (Rauravagama). Saiva Siddhanta is a South Indian religion, found among the Tamils only. Besides the canonical fourteen works, there are subsidiary works and commentaries in Tamil only. Agamas are accorded a special status while the Vedas only a general status as basic works to the philosophy. The importance given to the Agamas makes South Indian Saivism, a distinctive form of Hinduism, in some respects. The Tamils try to derive the basic framework of the system from their own Twelve Sacred Books.

The development of many philosophical schools led to development of sectarian conflicts and later attempts to patch them up, especially by mystic poets like Saint tAjumAnavar in the 18th century and Saint IrAmalingkar in the 19th century. camaracam, (harmony) becomes the main theme. The former praises the CLEVER cittar, (poets of powers) who found harmony between Vedanta and Siddhanta. The latter founded cutta camaraca canmArkka cangkam, a Society for Religious Wisdom of Pure Harmony.

5.5. Modern Period.

Islam and Christianity are important minority religions in this period. Islam came to Tamils in two ways. Arab traders intermarried with local people and built up a community, who now speak Tamil or Malayalam. Muslim invaders from the North had temporary success in the South and their descendants speak Urdu. As in Vaishnavism, there is some split in the attitude of the Muslims towards Tamil. Many of them are proud to claim Tamil as their language and they have made substantial contributions to the development of Tamil for more than six hundred years.

The Syrian Christian community, in the West coast, claims that they were the descendants of native converts of the Apostle Saint Thomas, from the first century A.D. They have preserved some copper plates, which according to them, were received by Saint Thomas from native rulers of his time. Modern epigraphists have dated the these plates in the ninth and the thirteenth centuries. It is now clear that this community is enjoying certain privileges in Kerala at least from the 9th century. Like the Christian trading community, a small Jewish trading community also in the West coast, gained privileges from the native Hindu rulers in the 10th century, as testified by a copper plate in the possession of their descendants. Roman Catholicism was introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th century. Protestantism was introduced by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British ruled over the entire Tamil homeland for 11/2 centuries - roughly from 1800 to 1950. Westernization and Modernization are going on, especially from the beginning of British rule and they are powerful forces even now. Christian missionaries have been very active and have considerable success in proselytisation. There was again Tamil polemical literature, reflecting a triangular contest among the Hindus, the Roman Catholics and the Protestants, especially between 1850 and 1925.

As for Jainism and Buddhism, the former continues to flicker, while the latter disappeared completely and has taken a new birth recently. Its rebirth is as a religion of protest, as a religion of the down-trodden. The people who became underprivileged and untouchable in the Hindu society felt that even Islam and Christianity could not bring them salvation and chose to accept Buddhism, on the advice of the late Dr. Ambedkar, their leader. Only a section of the underprivileged community called Dalits in India became converts. Their problem of integration into the rest of the population cries for solution.

The appeals to fundamentals of Brahminical Hinduism, as it is understood in North India, do not seem to have its echo among Tamils, because of the character of Hinduism in tamizNAdu. A few months ago, Prof. Saraswathy Vijayavenugopal, a folklorist from Madurai University in South India, in a lecture in Uppsala, made the observation that there seem to be many folk religions among the Hindu Tamils. Synchronization - continuing synchronism of different religions - seems to be a living process within what is called Hinduism among Tamils. The influence of political Hinduism, exemplified by Bharatiya Janata Party and Vishva Hindu Parishad, which champion Brahminical values, is negligible among Tamils.

The last half century in tamizNAdu is dominated by a powerful socio-political Dravidian movement, against North Indian influences, including Sanskrit and Hindi domination, but particularly Brahmin domination and oppression. among the Tamils in South India. Though the movement is split into many political groups. of which two are the two dominant political parties of tamizNAdu, there are still no indications that parties which don't subscribe to the ideology of the Dravidian movement can make headway in tamizNAdu. A small Brahmin community at the top is very vulnerable. Christians, Muslims, Buddhists and Jains find comfort in identifying themselves with the vast majority of the Hindus in the Dravidian movement. A kind of secularism is fostered as the ideology of the movement. tirukkuRaL is held up as the embodiment of Tamil Culture. The classical Cangkam period literature is idealised as the literature of the Golden Age of the Tamils.

Thanks to Prof. A. Veluppillai
Reference taken from :

Monday, April 12, 2010

Victim of brahmanical secularism in India

                                  Victim of brahmanical secularism in India 

An interesting debate has started about Savarkar in India. Savarkar, who propounded the two nation theory much before Jinnah could do so but the unfortunate part about the entire debate is crucification of analysis and presentation of thoughts according to once ideological perceptions. How history or historian glorify one and vilify the others is visible when I read an article in the ëOutlookí, magazine on Legacy of EVR. The author claimed that there is no one who remembers Periyar today in Tamilnadu. Ofcourse, when the bramins were at the helm of writing history in our Universities and colleges and the subsequent governments who came to power purely on the legacy and historic movements of Periyar, started compromising with brahmanical forces, then we cannot think of any Brahmin secular complaining about conspicuous silence over the Dravidian movement and its historic legacy. One may argue in the same way as who is remembering Gandhi in India and even his state of Gujarat and through a very a powerful khadi establishment of power. The fact is that despite all reservations, Gandhi was not killed by the Dalit or Muslim or any OBC but pure Maharastrian Brahmin. The same Brahmins who wanted India, a Hindu Rastra and at the same point of time did not want a separate Muslim land? How could it have been possible? They must thank their stars that their India does not revolve around Nagpur and Pune if their entire thesis was accepted.

Now the point is that nothing is beyond criticism but that has to be rational. History cannot be a matter of convenience. It has to be according to events and unfortunately it is here that we have failed miserably. Actually the so-called Savarkarites have learnt this lessons from their other north Indian cousins how to nationalize a 'segregated' icon. Hence like any one else, Savarkar in Maharastra is portrayed as a hero for every one. Forgive us, sir, please do say, he was a Brahmin and this land of Maharastra has seen powerful anti-brahmin movement led by not only Ambedkar but Jyoti Ba Phile and Savitri bai Phule as well as Ramabai Ambedkar. It is not coincident that in the same 'sacred' place of Nagpur where RSS was born, Dr Ambedkar had already made his impression felt among the Dalits. The likes of Iyer or other 'socialist' Brahmins would not write anything about this history of Maharastra and may even term it as castiest.

It is interesting to ask our entire secular historian and particularly from Tamilnadu as why strong movement such as 'Self Respect Movement' and an icon like Periyar could not find place in the history textbooks or social sciences. I was surprised during a visit to Madurai that none of the University teachers were interested in talking about Periyar. In fact the upper caste Tamils are not even ready to acknowledge the spirit of Dravidian movement. Ironically, 'progressive' journals and media house of Tamilnadu, who chant secularism from morning till evening, allow discredited politicians to write about Periyar in an utterly negative fashion and none of the upper caste secular activists say a word about it. The 'Outlook' article claims that there is no taker of Periyar's ideology in Tamilnadu and that religious fanaticism is growing. It is ironical that the Brahmins are finding it easier to portray Periyar and his perception against Dalits and some of the 'outstanding' Dalit 'intellectuals' also oblige their Brahmin friends because they feel that it is good to be in the 'good' company of the Brahmins for they boss Indian establishment and if they certify any one could become secular or communal. It is they who have made Vajpayee secular and Advani communal as if there is a vast difference between the two.

The brahmanical hatred against Periyar has many dimensions. For his 'self respect movement' moblilised' Tamils against upper caste hegemony. Is it Periyar's fault if no body is ready to take him or is it brahmanical crookedness which is working in Tamilnadu. If the Hiduisation and Hindiisation process of Chennai is visible, it is not Periyar's fault. The Brahmins of Tamilnadu had already migrated to US and the north and they feel more comfortable with their ënorth Indian cousinsí than the South Indian backwards. What Periyar and his ideology are facing is not particular with him because Periyarís rationality is the toughest thing. Secondly, in the market driven society, every thing sale, even the idiocies of values system. The market, therefore, does not portray the secularism of rational variety but would sale the other variety of secularism that feed the ultra nationalism and religiosity.

The entire debate on the school education and Secular-Hindutva debate revolve around ultra-national ideas which are dangerous thoughts and must be rejected. This nationalism is not just the monopoly of the Hindutva thugs but also the socalled progressive forces also have become victim of this nationalism. Hence when we debate about Savarkar, it is often quoted about how he and other Sanghis did not participate in the 1942 quit India movement. The problem with those who write such grossly forgotten facts, is, that a number of those who disagree with Gandhi did not participate in the 1942 struggle include the communists also. Not participating in Congress's quit India movement does not and should not make any one victim of conspiracy theories. Similarly, terming Savarkar as Hindu Jinnah is another dangerous theory which need to be countered. By this comparison we underestimate the great characteristics of Jinnah, father of Pakistan. Just because Jinnah stood for a Pakistan (there are many theories which says that Jinnah did not get Pakistan but handed over by the brahmanical leadership in India), does not make him a communalists. Is not it a fact that Gandhi supported Khilafat? Why should Gandhi do it despite Jinnah's abhorrence for the same? If history has to be taken into account and even happening around the world today, Gandhiís mixing politics with religion and supporting International political Islam must be rejected and condemned. Just to sideline a secular Jinnah if Gandhi could do so and our historian donít have time and courage to condemn it, then it is frightening and atrocious. If Gandhi is the hero of 'secular' upper caste Hindus so is Jinnah a hero of secular Pakistani elite. In todayís Pakistan we need to have more Jinnah supporter to make it a secular Pakistan and get rid of the Jehadi elements. It does not look rational to make Jinnah a victim of the fight between the secular upper castes and the Hindutva ideology.

There is no point in discussing the partition or its impact with a prejudice mind. Nor can history be truly written from an ultra nationalistic sense like what we have been witnessing in the Indian subcontinent. And thatís why our history books inform us about Aurangjeb, Shahjehan, Akbar, Jahangir, Babur and others. We have roads and other things named after them. I wonder why we cannot have that on Savarkar. Not because, I am in love with him but because if Savarkar was lodged in Andman Jail, what was wrong having his plaque. I know, it offends many 'secular' friends but the problem is not Savarkar, our ultra fascistic ways of not allowing anything which we donít like. The ideology has to be tackled with ideology and not through removing or including the plaques. If Savarkar asked the British to forgive him what is the big deal. Did not Atal do so and still become prime minister of the country? Was not Indian National Congress formed to get maximum benefits from the British? Was not Ambedkar a minister in Vice Roy's council? Did not the British in their heart supported Congress party? Every one had his own interest in that. The only thing that the Congress and Gandhi did not compromised and where they could have done so was the hanging of Bhagat Singh.

What I am trying to tell is, it is wrong at this moment to politicize an issue. Mani Shankar Iyer is ill-equipped to fight Savarkar and his ideology without getting out of his own narrow mindset. Iyer should first ask why a fellow Tamil like Periyar is not taught in the textbooks of India. Was he not an icon? Were the big masses that got mobilized under him were not history. What about the Vaikom movement where Gandhi ditched the Dalits and Periyar had to leave Congress?

It is important to note that many people who were opponent of Gandhi and Congress too worked for the Indian nation hood and for the benefits of the people. One such icon was Ambedkar who differed with Gandhi from day one and termed the Congress party is an upper caste Hindu party. Jinnah had the same feeling. But still they were leading the movements of their own kind. Gandhi represented the caste Hindus while they were leading their own communities. For Ambedkar, the emancipation of Dalits was more important than transfer of power from the white men to local brown Sahibs and that is why he did not participate in Congress's agitation. Now where do our upper caste historian put Ambedkar in the entire scheme of things. Ironically, both the left and right have targeted Ambedkar and his philosophy but we still don't have Ambedkar in our school text book. I am not sure even if he is there whether his struggle for Dalitís right against the caste system and varnashram dharma would be mentioned in country which still give Dronacharya Award who has been known crooked.

10 years back Hindtuva's thesis manager Arun Shourie wrote about Ambedkar and termed that he was a 'British agent'. That he was paying Rs 13,000 per month to M.N.Roy for his fight against fascism was interpreted by Arun Shourie as payment to serve the British. After serving the cause of the transnational corporations and working with the World Bank, such nationalism is not expected from Arun Shourie. Shourie's outburst was termed as Hindutvaís effort to hit the Dalit movement but the movement is not weak not to understand these juggleries of Shourie and his company whose contribution to this country is hatred and nothing more. Unfortunately, just a month back, when I was in Lucknow and scanning the books of a ëprogressiveí organization where I could find Mao and others radical, a book attracted my attention. A fellow claiming communist from Andhra Pradesh has done the same thing as Arun Shourie did. The only difference is that Arun Shourie wrote about Ambedkar from a perspective where he termed him anti national just because he was opposed to Gandhi, this woman from Hyderabad, has written about Ambedkar in the similar fashion as he was opposed to violence and also terming him as almost anti Dalit and only therapy for India she says was to go to violent Marxism.

Now, as a rationalist, I would not say not to comment on Ambedkar, but then we should also be ready for the same about Marx, Gandhi and others also. Why is that any one who question both become a victim of slander campaign in India. Why is that we question their credentials towards the nation and society. Both Arun Shourie and the other woman claiming to be a leftist have the same story.

Indian history and social sciences must have a rationalist and humanist dimension; otherwise we will always be used by this or that side of the fundamentalists whose only aim to success is religion. If Savarkar has a two-nation theory we cannot deny his viewpoint to the students. It is upto the students to decide whether that was good or bad. It is similar to that if I say that all the Gandhian khadi smells of a fascist trend as M N Roy said once upon a time. We must not deny students to decide about what is good and bad. But the problem is history textbooks have conspicuously sidelined those who don't agree with the Congress or Gandhian thoughts. Unfortunately, the 'progressive' have been part of it. It is equally important for todayís students to know about the violent movement in India and other legacies of Bhagat Singh and his friends. Is it justified for historians to term them violent without informing the students about their ideologies and perceptions? How many of our young students know that Bhagat Singh was against violence and thoroughly secular, not of any Swami variety. Shamefully even our Parliamentarians were unable to defend his case when some over enthusiastic journalists from Pakistan tried to equate Bhagat Singh with the attack on Parliament by the Jehadis. Is it not shocking that today we have reached a stage where martyrs like Bhagat Singh are being compared with religiously blind Jehadis ?

And those who harp on the great secular legacy of this post independent country should not forget the brahmanical nature of Indian state from the beginning. The communal riots, the massacre of Dalits, tribals, the partisan police and above all, a deeply dishonest brahmancial intelligentsia, are our legacy of last fifty years. Crooked political parties play savior and enemy in the public while dining together in the evening. The secular heroes bows to Bal Thackarey in Mumbai and at the same point of time sit with the Maulanas in Lucknow. Ironically, every one is secular when the oppression is concern and hence oppression of Dalits and the varnavyavastha is not a part of our history. Our students will not know how we still maltreat people on the basis of their caste and colour and how one community is reserved to clean our shits. Nobody bother write this dirt of our great heritage boasted by the seculars.

As I conclude, I find another 'secular' reformer in our textbook. A Delhi girl Nisha Sharma has found her place in the school textbooks as she 'refused' to marry a boy asking for dowry. One does not want to comment on 'revolting' Nisha who has been 'awarded' and ërewardedí for her great social work but the fact of the matter is whether she was against dowry or whether she or her father could not met the demands of her boyfriend. Whether they were ready to give a Zen and the boy asked for Maruti Esteem vehicle. Sharma's have no objection to the obnoxious system where girl is just meant to be donated and is ëseení by the boy.

So Nisha's 'daring' work has become part of history but not the story of thousands of those Dalit/ tribal girls who fight day in and out against oppression, who work on the field. We will know Rani Laxmi Bai but may not who Jhalkari Bai was and what was her contribution to the society.

It is therefore the need of the hour for school text book to present a diverse view in the text books and not a monolithic view point as India is a big country much beyong a simple history of Congress's movement against the British. Its student must know why there is a movement against our army in Manipur or how and when Sikkim was annexed. What is Kashmir problem and what was Tamil Nationalism. We may disagree but then if we cannot agree on disagreement then what is the difference between the fascist brigade and the 'progressive seculars'.

BY  V.B.Rawat

        THANKS TO

September 22, 2004

Tuesday, March 30, 2010

Friday, February 12, 2010

List of Tamil people

This is a list of famous and notable Tamil people.This would include persons who are known to a large number of people and is not based on the extent of their popularity. Neither is the list viewed from the context of the present. Their fame could be brief, what matters is that they were well-known during the peak of their popularity.

In Hollywood

M. Night Shyamalan, Hollywood Filmmaker (Half Tamilian: Father is Malayali and Mother is Tamilian).

Jay Chandrasekhar, Hollywood actor, comedian, writer, and film director.

Sendhil Ramamurthy, he is an American actor,.

Ashok Amritraj, Hollywood Filmmaker, Producer

Sunkrish Bala, an American actor,.

[edit] Other Entertainers

Aziz Ansari

[edit] Sports & Games

[edit] Carrom

A. Maria Irudayam, World Carrom Champion & Arjuna Award winner for Carrom (1996).

R. Arokiaraj, Carrom Champion.

K. Radhakrishnan, Carrom Champion.

B. Radhakrishnan, Carrom Champion.

E. Mahimairaj, Carrom Champion.

M. Natraj, Carrom Champion.

A. Ponnarasi, Carrom Champion.

G. Revathi, Carrom Champion.

G.Raja, Carrom Champion.

izhavazhagi,world carrom champion (2008).

[edit] Volleyball

A. Palanisamy, First Arjuna Award winner for volley ball (1961).

G E Sridharan, Arjuna Award winner.

Kumaran, played for Indian team and currently playing for IOB,Chennai.

Sundaram, former setter for Indian team and Indian Overseas Bank, Chennai.

Mangala Jeyabalan, former setter for Indian team.

Muthuraj, played for Indian team and currently playing for Indian Bank, Chennai.

Sayee Krishnan, played for Indian team and currently playing for Indian Bank, Chennai.

Pradeep John, represented India in Asian Games 2006 as part of Beach Volleyball.

Mohan Poothanathan, represented India in Asian Games 2006 as part of Beach Volleyball.

Sivaraman, played for Indian team and considered the best back row attacker during his playing time.

Natarajan J, playing currently for India and IOB, Chennai. Also the captain of the Tamil Nadu volleyball team.

Sivabalan, played for India and currently playing for IOB, Chennai.

Selvarasu, played for Indian junior team and currently playing for ICF, Chennai.

Raj Mohan, played for Indian junior team and currently playing for ICF, Chennai.

Kamaraj, represented Indian youth team which finished 2nd in the world championships.

J.Ramesh,Played for Indian team and played for Hindustan Photo Films

G.Chandra Mohan, former setter for Indian Team from Hindustan Photo Films, Ooty

[edit] Chess

Viswanathan Anand, World Chess Champion and the first Indian to earn the title of Grandmaster.

Manuel Aaron, The first Indian to earn the title of International Master.

Murugan Thiruchelvam, Chess player from United Kingdom.

Krishnan Sasikiran, Grandmaster & Arjuna Award winner for Chess (2002).

S. Vijayalakshmi, Six time Women's national champion of India, the First Women Grandmaster from India & Arjuna Award winner for Chess (2000).

S. Meenakshi, Women Grandmaster and sister of S. Vijayalakshmi.

Aarthie Ramaswamy, Women Grandmaster and under-18 girls' World Chess champion.

R. B. Ramesh, Grandmaster and National Champion of India & Winner of the 2002 British Chess Championship.

P. Mahesh Chandran, Grandmaster.

Deepan Chakkravarthy, Grandmaster & Winner of the Asian Junior Championship at Colombo in 2002.

G. B. Prakash, Grandmaster Elect.

P. Konguvel, International Master.

Lanka Ravi, International Master.

S. Arun Prasad, International Master.

S. Kidambi, International Master.

K. Murugan, International Master.

T. S. Ravi, International Master.

V. Saravanan, International Master.

T. N. Parameswaran, International Master.

R. Balasubramanian, International Master.

S. Poobesh Anand, International Master.

M. R. Venkatesh, International Master.

N. Sudhakar Babu, International Master.

[edit] Cricket

[edit] India

Buchi Babu Naidu (died 1908),Father of Chennai Cricket.

Cota Ramaswami (born 1896, presumed dead), represented India in both International cricket & Tennis.

M.J. Gopalan (1909–2003), represented India in both International Hockey & Cricket.

C. R. Rangachari (1916–1993), Pace Bowler, Indian Cricket Team.

C. D. Gopinath (born 1930), Batsman, Indian Cricket Team.

S. Venkataraghavan (born 1945), ex-Captain of Indian Cricket Team and Test & ODI umpire.

K. Srikkanth (born 1959), ex-Captain and current Chief Selector of Indian Cricket Team.

T.A. Sekhar (born 1956), Pace Bowler, Indian Cricket Team.

T. E. Srinivasan, Batsman, Indian Cricket Team.

L. Sivaramakrishnan (born 1965), Spin Bowler, Indian Cricket Team.

V. B. Chandrasekhar, Batsman, Indian Cricket Team.

Bharat Arun (born 1962), Pace Bowler, Indian Cricket Team.

Murali Kartik (born 1976), Spin Bowler, Indian Cricket Team.

Sadagoppan Ramesh (born 1975), Batsman, Indian Cricket Team.

Lakshmipathy Balaji (born 1981), Pace Bowler, Indian Cricket Team.

Dinesh Karthik (born 1985), Wicketkeeper, Indian Cricket Team.

Vignesh Venkatramam, (born 1984), Wicketkeeper - Batsman, Portslade Cricket Club, Sussex, England.

Woorkeri Raman

Robin Singh

[edit] Other Countries

Muttiah Muralitharan (born 1972), Highest Wicket taker in the Sri Lankan Cricket Team.

Russel Arnold - Cricketer of the Sri Lankan team

Vinodhan John, Pace Bowler, First Sri Lankan Tamil Test cricketer 1982.

Kandiah Thirugnansampandapillai Francis, International Test & ODI umpire from Sri Lanka.

A Varadarajan, Batsman, Canadian Cricket Team.

Sanjayan Thuraisingam (born 1969), Pace Bowler, Canadian Cricket Team.

Easwaran Sinnathamby (born 1973), Pace Bowler, Canadian Cricket Team.

Kantharatnam Shanthikumar (born 1954), Pace Bowler, Canadian Cricket Team.

Mahendra Nagamootoo, West Indies Cricket Team.

Ruban Sivanadian (born 1965),ICC Umpire from Canada (born Sri Lanka) [2]

[edit] Football

Peter Velappan (born 1935), General Secretary of Asian Football Confederation and Member of FIFA Strategic Studies Committee & Organising Committee for the FIFA World Cup.

Peter Thangaraj (1938-2008), Olympion and the Goalkeeper of Indian football team that won the Gold Medal at the 1962 Jakarta Asian Games.

Komaleeswaran Sankar, Only Indian FIFA Assistant Referee for the Football World Cup and have won the Asia’s 'Best Assistant Referee' award in 1999.

Vikash Dhorasoo is a French professional football midfielder, who is currently without a club after being sacked from French Ligue 1 side Paris Saint-Germain. He has scored one goal in eighteen matches for the French national team, and he represented his country at the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany.

FIFA Committees: member of FIFA Strategic Studies Committee, Organising Committee for the FIFA World Cup, Football Committee Awards: FIFA Centennial

[edit] Hockey

Vasudevan Baskaran, Captain of the Indian Hockey team that won Olympic Gold in 1980 Moscow Olympics and Arjuna Award winner (1979–1980).

Dhanraj Pillay (born 1968), ex-Indian Hockey Captain, Arjuna Award winner (1995) and also winner of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award (1999–2000).

Mohamad Riaz, Olympion and Arjuna Award (1998).

Adam Sinclair, Member of the Indian Hockey team at the 2004 Athens Olympics.

Raja, Member of the Indian Hockey team.

Mathisan Selvananthan, Member of the Indian Hockey team.

[edit] Kabaddi

Subbiah Rajarathinam, Captain of the Indian Kabaddi team that won the Gold in 1994 Hiroshima Asian Games.

[edit] Racing

Narain Karthikeyan, Coimbatore, India's first Formula 1 driver.

S. Karivardhan, Coimbatore, Car Constructor and National Champion.

N. Leelakrishnan, Coimbatore, 7 Times National Rally Champion.

Naren Kumar, Coimbatore, 4 Times National Rally Champion.

J. Anand, Coimbatore, 3 Times National F3 Grand Prix winner.

R. Gopinath, Coimbatore, F3 National Champion and Founder of SpitFire Motorsports.

B. Vijay Kumar, Coimbatore, Fiat Champion and LG sports founder.

G. R. Karthikeyan, Coimbatore, 7 Times South India Rally winner and father of Narain Karthikeyan.

Akbar Ebrahim, Chennai, 3 Times National F3 Grand Prix winner.


Vijay Amritraj, International Tennis Champion & Actor

Anand Amritraj, International Tennis player.

Ashok Amritraj, International Tennis player.

Prakash Amritraj, International Tennis player.

Mahesh Bhupathi, International Tennis player.

Ramanathan Krishnan, International Tennis player.

Ramesh Krishnan, International Tennis player.

Nirupama Vaidyanathan, International Tennis player from Coimbatore.

Jeevan Nedunchezhian- Tennis player, World number 17th under 18
 Cultural Icons

Thirumuruga Kirupananda Variyar, Scholarly Saint.

Rukmini Devi Arundale, Bharatanatyam dancer & fonder of Kalakshetra.

Balasaraswati, Bharatanatyam dancer.

Alarmel Valli, Bharatanatyam dancer.

Chitra Visweswaran, Bharatanatyam dancer.

Padma Subramanyam, Bharatanatyam dancer.

Medha Hari, Bharatanatyam dancer.

Pithukuli Murugadas, Divine Musician who is known for his songs on Lord Murugan.

K. B. Sundarambal, Actress/Singer.

Sirkazhi Govindarajan, Vocalist and Carnatic Music exponent.

Dr. Sirkazhi G. Sivachidambaram, Vocalist and Carnatic Music exponent.

 Tamil Language Icons

Arumuka Navalar (1822–1879), Pioneer of Tamil Prose & Champion of Hinduism from Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

Maraimalai Adigal, Tamil scholar & Activist.

Rev.Father Xavier Thaninayagam Adigalar (1913–1980), from Jaffna, Sri Lanka, founder member of the International Association for Tamil Research.

Mahavidwan R. Raghava Iyengar, Tamil scholar & Researcher & Poet.

U. V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855–1942), Pioneer of Tamil Popularly known as Tamil Thaatha.

[edit] Spiritual Icons

Alwars, There are 12 Alwars, who are devotees of Lord Vishnu and exponents of Vaishnavism.

Nayanmars, There are 63 Nayanmars, who are devotees of Lord Siva and exponents of Saivism.

Ramalinga Swamigal (1823–1873), popularly known as Vallalar.

Ramanuja (1017–1137), Philosopher and one of the most important saint of Vaishnavism.

Appayya Dikshidar (1520–1593), Philosopher, followed Advaita School of Indian Philosophy.

Ramana Maharshi (1879–1950).

Yogaswami (1872–1964), A Great Spiritual Leader from Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

Sivananda Saraswati (1887–1963), A well known proponent of Yoga and Vedanta.

Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy (born 1924), Cardinal Priest of S Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci fuori Porta Cavalleggeri, Vatican City.

Dayananda Saraswati, Founder of the Arsha Vidya Gurukulam.

Yogiraj Shri Vethathiri Maharishi, Founder of the The World Community Service Center, an organisation striving for World peace from 1911 and propagator of the famous blessing phrase of "Vaazgha Vaiyagam Vaazgha Valamudan" (வாழ்க வையகம் வாழ்க வளமுடன்) roughly translated as 'Be Blessed by the Divine'.

Paramahamsa Sri Nithyananda (born 1978), Founder of the Nithyananda Foundation.

Bala Prajapathi Adikalar, the present Pattathu Ayya of Swamithope pathi and leader of Ayyavazhi religion.

D. G. S. Dhinakaran, prominent Christian Evangelist and founder of Jesus Calls Ministries.

Sri Sri Ravi Shankar,is a spiritual and humanitarian leader.

 Classical Literature

Thiruvalluvar, Saint Poet & Author of Thirukural.

Thirumoolar, Saint Poet & Author of Thirumandhiram.

Tholkaapiyar, Author of Tholkappiyam, one of the first Tamil grammar books.

Illango Adigal, Saint Poet & Author of Silappathikaram.

Srivilliputhurar, Author of Tamil Mahabharatham.

Seethalai Saathanar, Author of Manimegalai.

Kambar, Author of Kamba Ramayanam.

Auvaiyar, Women Saint & Author of Aathichoodi.

Tirutakakatevar, Author of Jivaka Chintamani.

Eelattu Poothanthevanar, Classical Sri Lankan Poet of Sangam period.

Spiritual Literature


Nakkeerar Author of Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai .

Thirumular, Author of Thirumandhiram.

Arunagirinathar, Author of Thiruppugazh.

Sekkizhar, Author of Periapuranam.

Manikkavasagar, Author of Thiruvasagam & One of the Nayanmars.

Nammalvar, Author of Tiruvaymozhi & One of the Alwars.

Thirumazhisai Alvar, Author of Tiruchanda-virutham & One of the Alwars.

Andal, Author of Tiruppaavai & One of the Alwars.

V. Akilesapillai, Tamil scholar Poet & Author of Thirukonasala Vaipavam from Sri Lanka.


Henry A. Krishna Pillai


Umaru Pulavar (1605–1703), Author of Sirappuranam, Islamic spiritual work on the life of Muhammad.

Mohammad Ibrahim, Author of Muhaidin Puranam, Islamic spiritual literature.

[edit] Modern literature


Subramanya Bharathy (1882–1921), Nationalist Tamil Poet.

Bharathidasan (1891–1964), Tamil Poet & Rationalist.

Pudhumaipithan (1906–1948), Tamil Fiction Writer known for his Modern outlook and Progressive thinking.

Prof. Karmegha Konar (1889–1957), Tamil Poet.

Akilan, Novelist.

Ramalingam Pillai (Namakkal Kavignar)

Thi.Janakiraman, Novelist.

Laa.Sa. Ramamirutham, Novelist.

Kalki Krishnamurthy (1899–1954), Freedom fighter, novelist and journalist.

Jayakanthan (born 1934), Writer & Novelist.

Kannadasan (1927–1981), Popularly called as Kavi Arasu Poet, Film lyricist & Winner, National Film Award for Best Lyrics (1969).

Vairamuthu (born 1953), Poet, Film lyricist & Winner, National Film Award for Best Lyrics (1986), (1993), (1995), (2000) & (2003).

Indira Soundarajan, Novelist & Short story Writer.

Ashoka Mitran (born 1931), Novelist & Short story Writer.

R. K. Narayan (1906–2001), English novelist & Essayist.

Koththamangalam Subbu, Poet.

Sandilyan, Novelist.

Pa. Vijay, Film lyricist & Winner, National Film Award for Best Lyrics (2005).

Vaali, Film lyricist.

Sujatha Rangarajan (born 1935), contemporary Tamil & Film screen play writer.

Krishna Srinivas (born 1913), World Poet.

Kaavya Viswanathan (born 1987), Novelist.

V Gangadhar (born 1987), Novelist.

David Davidar (born 1987), Novelist.

 Other countries

Philip Jeyaratnam, Singapore writer (also, President of Singapore Law Society). (Sri Lankan Tamil father, European mother)

Gopal Baratham (1935–2002), Singaporean writer and leading neurosurgeon

Edwin Thumboo (born 1933), Singaporean writer (Tamil father, Teochew Chinese mother)

S.Ponnudurai, novelist from Sri Lanka

Shyam Selvadurai, Sri Lankan-Canadian novelist (Sri Lankan Tamil father, Sri Lankan Sinhalese mother)


Veerappan, Sandalwood smuggler and forest brigand.

Auto Shankar, serial killer

Varadarajan Mudaliar, Underworld Don


 Members of the LTTE

Velupillai Prabhakaran, leader of the LTTE,

Captain Miller

Anton Balasingham

Colonel Soosai

Colonel Kittu

Sathasivam Krishnakumar


Thenmuli Rajaratnam