Monday, June 13, 2011

தொடரும் மொழிப்போர்...


தொடரும் மொழிப்போர்...

Strive to Save Tamil - Tamil Literature Ilakkiyam Papers
ஓரினம் தனது அடையாளத்தை தக்க வைத்துக் கொள்வதற்கு பல வழிகளிலும் போராடத்தான் வேண்டியிருக்கிறது. நாடு, எல்லை என தனக்கான தன்னாட்சி உரிமையைப் பெறுவதற்கும், அதனை தொடர்ச்சியாகத் தக்க வைப்பதற்குமான கலகங்களும், சச்சரவுகளும் உலகெங்கும் நடைபெற்ற வண்ணமிருக்கின்றன. இதில், அவ்வின மொழியின் இருப்பும், முதன்மை பெறுகிறது. "ஒரு இனத்தை அழிக்க வேண்டுமானால், அது பேசுகின்ற மொழியை முதலில் அழித்துவிடு" எனும் வல்லாதிக்க சித்தாந்தத்தை எதிர்கொண்ட மொழிகளுள், தனிச்சிறப்பிற்குரிய இடத்தைப் பெற்றுத் திகழ்கிறது தமிழ்.
மூவாயிரம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கும் மேலாக தமிழ் மொழியின் மீது நடத்தப்படுகின்ற, அழித்தொழிப்புப் பணியில் தற்போது வரை தப்பிப் பிழைத்திருக்கிறது என்றால், அது தன்னை நிலைநிறுத்திக் கொள்வதற்காக அணியப்படுத்திக் கொண்ட கழக இலக்கியங்களும், காப்பியங்களுமே முதன்மைக் காரணமாகும். எத்தனையோ வடிவங்களில் நடைபெற்ற, எவ்வளவோ அழிவுச் செயல்பாடுகளுக்கு இடையிலும் தமிழ் மொழியின் தலைநிமிர்ந்த நன்னடை, பெருமைக்குரியதாக இருக்கிறது. ஆங்கிலத்திற்கு அடுத்தபடியாக இன்று கணினியில் மாபெரும் வளர்ச்சியைக் கண்டிருக்கும் தமிழ்மொழியின் வரலாற்று வழித்தடம், அண்மைக் காலம் வரை கரடுமுரடாய்த்தான் இருந்திருக்கிறது. இப்போதும் அது போன்ற தடத்திலேதான் பயணம் செய்து கொண்டிருக்கிறது என்பதும் உண்மை.
சங்க இலக்கியங்கள் இயற்றப்பட்ட காலத்திற்கு முன்பாகவே தமிழ்ச்சமூகம், பரந்து பட்ட அளவில் கல்வியறிவு பெற்றிருந்ததை, மதுரைக்கு அருகிலுள்ள ஆண்டிப்பட்டி புள்ளிமான் கோம்பையில் கிடைத்த நடுகற்கள் சான்றாய் நின்று பகர்கின்றன. கோவையில் கிடைத்த சூலூர் மண் தட்டில் காணப்படும் குறியீடுகளும், சிந்து சமவெளியில் கிடைத்த குறியீடுகளும் ஒத்ததாய் அமைந்திருப்பது, தமிழ்ப்பண்பாட்டின் நாகரிகம் எவ்வளவு பழமை வாய்ந்தது என்பதை உரக்கத் தெரிவித்துள்ளது. ஆதிச்சநல்லூர் அகழ்வாய்வு மேலும் பல வரலாற்றுத் தகவல்களை வெளிக் கொணர்ந்துள்ளது. "தீதும் நன்றும் பிறர் தர வாரா" என்று அறிவுச் செருக்கோடு உலகத்திற்கே வாழ்வியல் எதார்த்தத்தை வழங்கிய தமிழ் மொழி, இன்னும் கடக்க வேண்டிய தூரம் நிறையவே உள்ளது. இதற்கிடையே, நேற்றுப் பிறந்த மொழிகளோடும், அதற்கு முந்தைய நாள் பிறந்த மொழிகளோடும் ஒப்பிட்டு, தமிழின் செம்மொழிப் பெருமையைக் கீழிறக்கும் செயல்களும் நம் கண் முன்னே அரங்கேற்றப்படுகிறது என்பதையும் நாம் கணக்கிலே கொண்டாக வேண்டும்.
சில பத்தாண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு தமிழகத்தில் நடைபெற்ற மொழிப்போர் குறித்து இப்போதுள்ள இளந்தலைமுறை அறிந்திருக்க வாய்ப்பில்லை. கல்லூரி மாணாக்கர்கள், போர்க்குணத்துடன் தாங்கள் எண்ணிய இலக்கு ஈடேறுவதற்காக, மண்டை உடைந்து, கை கால் ஒடிந்து, குருதி சொட்ட, உயிர் ஈகம் செய்த வரலாறு, தமிழகத்தின் கருஞ்சிவப்புப் பக்கங்களாகும். 1965ஆம் ஆண்டு தமிழகத்தின் முதல்வராய் இருந்த காங்கிரஸ் கட்சியின் பக்தவச்சலம், தமிழகத்தின் பெரும்பாலான மாவட்டங்களில் தன்னெழுச்சியாய் நடைபெற்ற இந்தி எதிர்ப்புப் போராட்டத்தின் போது, அதில் ஈடுபட்ட கல்லூரி மாணவர்களை கதறக் கதற லத்தியால் அடித்த அடியை எவராலும் மறக்கவும் முடியாது, மன்னிக்கவும் முடியாது. அன்று அடி வாங்கிய பெரும்பாலான மாணவர்கள் இன்று திராவிடக் கட்சிகளின் பல்வேறு பொறுப்புகளிலும், பல தமிழ்த் தேசிய அமைப்புகளிலும் வாழும் சான்றாக தற்போதும் உயிருடன் இருக்கிறார்கள். தமிழகத்தின் முன்னாள் முதல்வர் அண்ணா தலைமையில் இப்போராட்டத்தை முன்னின்று நடத்திய திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம், அப்போது மொழியுணர்வோடும், இனவுணர்வோடும் இருந்தது என்பது குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது.
இந்திய நாடு விடுதலையடைவதற்கு முன்பாக அப்போதைய சென்னை மாகாணத்தின் முதல்வராக இருந்த இராஜகோபாலாச்சாரியார், 1938ஆம் ஆண்டு ஏப்ரல் 21ஆம் நாள் முதன் முதலாக இந்தியைக் கட்டாயப் பாடமாக்கினார். இதனை எதிர்த்து பெரியார், நாவலர் சோமசுந்தர பாரதியார், கி.ஆ.பெ மற்றுமுள்ள தமிழறிஞர்களும் இணைந்து போராட்டத்தை முன்னெடுத்தனர். தொண்டர்களும், தலைவர்களுமாக பல்லாயிரக்கணக்கானோர் இப்போராட்டத்தில் திரண்டனர். இதற்கிடையே முதலமைச்சரின் வீட்டிற்கு முன்பாக உண்ணாநோன்பிருந்த பல்லடம் பொன்னுசாமி என்பார் இந்தித் திணிப்பிற்கு எதிரான போராட்டத்தில் முதல் நபராகக் கைதானார். அதே ஆண்டு டிசம்பர் 5ஆம் நாள் இந்தி மொழி எதிர்ப்பிற்காக நடராசன் கைது செய்யப்பட்டார். சிறையில் கடும் தாக்குதலுக்கு ஆளான நடராசன், 1939ஆம் ஆண்டு சனவரி 15ஆம் நாள் இறந்துபோனார். இந்தி மொழி எதிர்ப்புப் போராட்டத்தில் உயிர் ஈகம் செய்த முதல் போராளி இவர். தர்மாம்பாள், நாராயணி, மூவலூர் இராமாமிர்தம் அம்மையார் உள்ளிட்ட பெருமளவிலான பெண்களும் இப்போராட்டத்தின் விளைவாக கைது நடவடிக்கைக்கு ஆளாயினர்.
இந்தித் திணிப்பிற்கு ஆதரவான அரசின் முயற்சிகளுக்கு 1938ஆம் ஆண்டு இராஜாஜி வித்திட்டாரென்றால், அதற்கு எதிரான போராட்டங்களுக்கு அடித்தளம் அமைத்தவர் பெரியார் ஈ.வெ.ரா. இந்தி மொழிக்கு எதிரான போராட்டத்தில் இறந்துபோன நடராசனின் இறப்பை இராஜாஜி, பொறுப்பற்ற முறையில் விமர்சனம் செய்தார். இரண்டாவது மொழிப் போராட்டமாய்க் கருதப்படும் 1948ஆம் ஆண்டிலும் அதே காங்கிரஸ் அரசு, முதல்வராய் அமர்ந்த ஓமந்தூர் இராமசாமி மூலம் இந்தித் திணிப்பை மேற்கொண்டது. அப்போதும் பெரியார் தலைமையில் அறிஞர் அண்ணா, திரு.வி.க., பாரதிதாசன், தருமாம்பாள் என பல்வேறு தலைவர்களும், அறிஞர்களும் போராட்டங்கள் பல நடத்தி சிறை புகுந்தனர்.
வெள்ளை ஏகாதிபத்தியத்திடமிருந்து நாடு விடுதலை பெற்ற பின்னர், இந்தியா தனக்கென்று அரசியல் அமைப்பை உருவாக்க முடிவு செய்தது. இதற்கென்று உருவாக்கப்பட்ட அரசியல் அமைப்புக் குழு இந்தியாவின் ஆட்சி மொழி குறித்த கலந்துரையாடலை 1949ஆம் ஆண்டு செப்டம்பர் மாதம் நடத்தியது. அரசியலமைப்பு அவையில் இருந்த காங்கிரஸ் கட்சியின் உறுப்பினர்கள், தனியே நடத்திய கூட்டத்தில் ஆட்சி மொழி வாக்கெடுப்பை நடத்தினர். இதில் இந்திக்கு ஆதரவாக 77 வாக்குகளும், ஆங்கிலத்திற்கு ஆதரவாக 77 வாக்குகளும் கிடைத்தன. அப்போது அந்தக் கூட்டத்தின் தலைவராக இருந்த பட்டாபி சீதாராமய்யர் தனது ஓட்டை இந்திக்கு ஆதரவாகப் பதிவு செய்ததால் ஒரு வாக்கு வேறுபாட்டில் இந்தி மொழி வெற்றி பெற்றது. இதற்குப் பிறகு இந்தி மொழியை, அதனைப் பேசாத பிற மாநிலங்களில் திணிப்பதற்கு காங்கிரஸ் பெரும் முயற்சி எடுத்தது. இந்தியாவின் பல்வேறு மாநிலங்களும் விரும்பாத நிலையில் இந்தித் திணிப்பு விரைவுபடுத்தப்பட்டது. 1950 சனவரி 26ஆம் நாள் இந்திய அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டம் 17ஆவது பிரிவின் கீழ் இந்தி, நடுவணரசின் ஆட்சி மொழியாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டது.
இந்தி மொழி திணிப்பிற்கு எதிரான போரில் முளைத்த திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம், தொடர்ந்து பல்வேறு பேராட்டங்களை நடத்தியது. அக்கட்சியின் இதழ்களிலும், வேறு பல ஏடுகளிலும் இந்தி ஆதிக்கத்திற்கு எதிரான கட்டுரைகள் தொடர்ந்து வெளிவந்தன. தமிழகத்தின் கடுமையான எதிர்ப்பு அன்றைய பிரதமர் ஜவகர்லால் நேருவின் மனநிலையில் மாற்றத்தைக் கொண்டு வந்தது. இதன் விளைவாக 1959ஆம் ஆண்டு ஆகஸ்ட் மாதம் 7ஆம் நாள் மக்களவையில் பிரதமர் நேரு, "இந்தி பேசாத மாநில மக்கள் விரும்பும் வரை ஆங்கிலமே தொடர்பு மொழியாக இருக்கும்" என்று உறுதியளித்தார். இதனையடுத்து தற்காலிகமாக மூன்றாவது மொழிப்போர் முடிவுக்கு வந்தது. ஆனால் 1963ஆம் ஆண்டிலிருந்து 1965ஆம் ஆண்டு வரை நடைபெற்ற நான்காவது மொழிப்போர், இரத்தம் சிந்திய போராட்டமாக அமைந்துவிட்டது. அப்போதும் காங்கிரஸ் கட்சியே இந்தித் திணிப்பை முன்னெடுத்தது. நடுவண் உள்துறை அமைச்சராக இருந்த லால் பகதூர் சாஸ்திரி 1963ஆம் ஆண்டு, ஏப்ரல் 13ஆம் நாள் கொண்டு வந்த ஆட்சி மொழி குறித்த சட்ட முன்வரைவு, பல்வேறு சர்ச்சைகளைக் கிளப்பின. இதன் விளைவாக ஒட்டு மொத்த தமிழகமே கொந்தளித்தது. அண்ணா தலைமையில் நடைபெற்ற போராட்டங்கள் அனைத்தும் தமிழகம் முழுவதும் பரவின.
கல்லூரி மாணவர்கள் அனைவரும் இந்தித் திணிப்பிற்கு எதிரான பெரும் போரில் சிறிதும் தயக்கமின்றி குதித்தனர். காங்கிரஸ் தலைமையிலான பக்தவச்சலம் அரசு மிக மோசமான ஒடுக்குமுறைகளைக் கையாண்டது. தமிழகக் காவல்துறை, மாணவர்கள் தங்கியிருந்த விடுதிக்குள் புகுந்து காட்டுமிராண்டித்தனமாக அடித்தத் காங்கிரஸ் தொண்டர்களைத் தயார் செய்து, ஆங்காங்கே மாணவர்கள் மீது உருட்டுக் கட்டைகளால் தாக்கியது என வரலாறு காணாத அளவில் பெரும் வன்முறைக் காடாக தமிழகத்தை மாற்றிக் காட்டியது பக்தவச்சலம் தலைமையிலான காங்கிரஸ் அரசு. இந்த நெடும் போராட்டத்தில் தான் வெறும் 21 வயதே ஆன கீழப்பழுவூர் சின்னச்சாமி, திருச்சி தொடர்வண்டி நிலையத்திற்கு முன்பாக "இந்தி ஒழிக, தமிழ் வாழ்க!" என்று முழக்கமிட்டு, தன் உடலுக்குத் தீ வைத்துக் கொண்டு இறந்து போனார்.
மதுரையில் நடைபெற்ற கல்லூரி மாணவர்கள் போராட்டத்தில், திட்டமிட்டு வன்முறையைத் தூண்டிய காங்கிரஸ் அரசு, மாணவர்களை ஓட, ஓட அடித்து விரட்டியது. அதில் நூற்றுக்கணக்கானோர் படுகாயமடைந்தனர். 1965 சனவரி 26ஆம் நாள் சிவலிங்கம் என்ற திமுக தொண்டர், சென்னை கோடம்பாக்கத்தில் தீக்குளித்து இறந்து போனார். மொழிக்காக உயிரை ஈந்த இத்தியாகப் போராட்டத்தை பக்தவச்சலம், சட்டமன்றத்தில் மிக இழிவாகப் பேசினார். பிறகு பல்வேறு இடங்களில் நடைபெற்ற போராட்டங்களில் தீக்குளித்து இறத்தல் தொடர்கதையாகின. 1965ஆம் ஆண்டு ஐம்பது நாட்கள் நடைபெற்ற நான்காவது மொழிப் போராட்டத்தில், காங்கிரஸ் அரசால் நடத்தப்பட்ட வன்முறையின் காரணமாய் சற்றேறக்குறைய 500 பேர் கொல்லப்பட்டனர். ஆயிரக்கணக்கானோர் படுகாயமுற்றனர்.
இந்தி ஆதிக்கத்தை எதிர்த்து நடந்த போராட்டங்கள் அனைத்தையும் அப்போதிருந்த இளைஞர்களும், மாணவர்களுமே பெரும் எழுச்சியோடு நடத்தினர். நூற்றுக்கணக்கான உயிர்களை இழந்து தமிழ் மொழியைக் காப்பாற்றினாலும் கூட, நடுவணரசின் மறைமுக வேலைத்திட்டமும், மாநிலக் கட்சிகளின் கையாலாகாத்தனமும் இந்தியை கொஞ்சம், கொஞ்சமாய் தமிழகத்திற்குள் தற்போது கொண்டு வந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறது. "அனைவருக்கும் கல்வி" என்பதைக் காட்டிலும் "சர்வ சிக்ச அபியான்" வெகு இயல்பாக புழங்கப்படுகிறது. தமிழகத்திலுள்ள நடுவண் அரசின் அனைத்துத் துறைகளும் இந்தியை மெல்ல மெல்ல புகுத்தி வருகின்றன. நடுவண் அரசின் காப்பீட்டுத் திட்டங்களும், தேசியமயமாக்கப்பட்ட வங்கிகளும் இந்தித் திணிப்பை தொடர்ந்து மேற்கொண்டு வருகின்றன. அறிஞர் அண்ணா, "மத்தியில் தமிழ் ஆட்சி மொழியாக எப்போது அறிவிக்கப்படுகிறதோ, அப்போதுதான் இந்த மொழிப்போர் முடிவிற்கு வரும்" என்றார். அந்த நிலை அய்யாவால் சாத்தியமாகுமா..? அல்லது அம்மாவால் சாத்தியமாகுமா..? என்பது இன்னமும் விளங்காத புதிர்.
மொழிப் போராட்டத்தை கையிலெடுத்து, ஆளும் உரிமையைப் பெற்ற திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம் மொழி, இன உணர்வைக் காப்பாற்ற தன்மரியாதையோடு செயல்படத் தொடங்கும் நாள் எந்நாளோ? இரு கழகங்களின் ஆட்சியில் தான் ஆங்கில வழியிலான நர்சரிப் பள்ளிகள் வெகு வேகமாக வளர்ந்தன. தமிழ் உரையாடல்கள் அவ்வப்போது தலைகாட்டும் வண்ணம் தமிழ்த் திரைப்படங்களின் வளர்ச்சி விரைவடைந்ததும் கழகங்களின் காலத்தில்தான். தற்போது கிரந்த எழுத்துக்களைக் கொண்டு தமிழ்மொழியின் கணினிப் பயன்பாட்டு வளர்ச்சியைத் தடை செய்கின்ற முயற்சியும் திமுகவின் காலத்தில்தான் நடைபெற்றுக் கொண்டிருக்கிறது. ஒரு தலைமுறையே தமிழ் மொழியை உச்சரிக்கும் திறனற்று, ஆங்கில மோகத்தில் திளைத்துக் கொண்டிருக்கும் மனநிலையை ஊக்குவித்தது திமுகவும் அதன் அரசியல் எதிரியான அதிமுகவும்தான்.
தமிழ்வழியில் பயின்றோருக்கு வேலைவாய்ப்பில் முன்னுரிமை என்ற திமுக அரசின் அறிவிப்பிற்கு நீதிமன்றம் சென்று தடையாணை பெறுகின்ற அளவிற்கு தமிழ் மொழிக்கெதிரான செயல்பாடுகள் அப்பட்டமாகவே தமிழகத்தில் நடைபெறுகின்றன. இதற்கெல்லாம் தமிழகத்தை ஆளுகின்ற, ஆளப்போகின்ற கழக அரசுகள் என்ன சொல்லப் போகின்றன? அண்டை மாநிலங்களான மராட்டியமும், கன்னடமும், மலையாளமும் தனது தாய்மொழியின் வளர்ச்சிக்கு பல்வேறு வகையில் பங்காற்றுகின்ற போது, தமிழகத்தால் மட்டும் இயலாமற்போனது ஏன்? மொழி வழி தேசியம் என்பதில் ஆழமான நம்பிக்கை கொண்டு, அண்டைத் தேசிய இனங்கள், அதனதன் மாநிலத்திற்குள் ஒன்று சேரும்போது தமிழகத்தில் மட்டும் அவ்வாறு இயலவில்லையே என்ன காரணம்? முல்லைப் பெரியாறு, பாலாறு, காவிரி போன்ற உயிராதாரச் சிக்கல்களில் கூட தமிழர்களால் ஒன்று பட இயலாமற் போனதற்கு யாரைக் குற்றம் சாட்டுவது? இவையனைத்திற்கும் காரணம் தன்னல அரசியலன்றி வேறு எது?
முதல் பத்து இடத்தில் தமிழ்மொழி!
உலகின் மிகப் பிரபலமான அகரமுதலிகளுள் முதன்மை இடத்தை வகிக்கும் விக்கி அகரமுதலி தனது அடையாள முத்திரையில் தமிழையும் இடம் பெறச் செய்துள்ளது. தற்போது விக்கி அகரமுதலியில் (http://www.wiktionary.org/) மட்டும் ஒரு இலட்சத்து 92 ஆயிரம் சொற்கள் இடம்பெற்று முதல் பத்து இடங்களுக்குள் தமிழ் இடம் பெற்றுள்ளது (http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wiktionary#Statistics). இந்திய மொழிகளுள் எவையும் இந்த இடத்தைப் பிடிக்கவில்லை என்பது குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது.
தமிழில் பேச உறுதியேற்போம்!
இன்று கணினியில் தமிழ் கோலோச்சுவதற்கு புலம் பெயர்ந்து வாழ்கின்ற தமிழர்களும், ஈழத் தமிழர்களுமே மிக முக்கியக் காரணம். மொழிப் போராடத்தை தீவிரமாக நடத்திக் காட்டிய தமிழ் மண்ணில் பிறந்தோர் தற்போது ஒரு சொற்றொடரைக் கூட முழுமையாகத் தமிழில் பேச இயலவில்லை. இதற்கெல்லாம் காரணம் நம்மை ஆளுகின்ற அரசுகளின் பலவீனமே! இந்தி மொழிப்போர் ஈகியர் நாளிலாவது நாம் அனைவரும் தாய்மொழியில் உரையாட உறுதியேற்போம்.

நன்றி: கீற்று

Saturday, September 4, 2010

Saturday, July 10, 2010

Fallen Art

Who Brought The Mayans To Mexico?

                                                         Who Brought The Mayans To Mexico?
                                                                                       or
                        Were the ancient Turks, Akkads (Sumerians) and Dravidians (Tamils) the parents of Mexico and Meso-America?

By Gene D. Matlock


THE FOREFATHERS OF THE MAYANS SET SAIL FOR MESO-AMERICA.


  The time is about 1,500 BC. A fleet of Tamil ships in some harbor of the Konkan or Kankon, a beautiful white sand coastline stretching from todayís Maharasthra to the southern tip of Western India, raises anchor and sails south to what is now the large island nation of Ceylon (todayís Sri Lanka). Their goal is to sail to Patala or what is now Mexico and Meso-America, leaving emigrant settlers there. During their stay in Ceylon, they recruit skilled stone workers, skilled craftsmen, and temple builders in the province of Maya, to build a new Tamil civilization over or alongside an Akkad-type (Sumerian) civilization that was already in Meso-America: that of the Olmecs or Olman.

[Right: A beach in the Konkan.]



  The ancient Tamils were international traders and colonizers. Wherever they went in the world, they left an unmistakable imprint of their presence, such as place names, foods, games, and temple buildings. Their temple buildings were usually zikharis (tiered or pyramidical temple platforms). Often, small entrances or temples were located on each tier, but not always. On the top tier, there was always a temple. On top if it often stood an ornate rectangular steeple. However, circular domes or single spires often stood on top of the temple as well. Zikharis usually varied in appearance, according to the Dravidian or Tamil-derived cultures of the host nations. But one thing never changed: the unmistakable presence of Tamil influence.

[Right: Zikharis in Konkan.]


 











 [Right: Kanchipuram Temple.]

                                                                                 

ABOUT WHO THE PHOENICIANS REALLY WERE.

Before continuing with this article, I must clarify who the Phoenicians really were. I first learned about these people who settled the earth, about whom modern man knows nearly nothing, from the 19th century British Orientalist George Rawlinsonís book, Phoenicia. He was considered as the leading authority on these hardy mariners. But even he was off base. He said that the Phoenicians had no definite homeland but occupied trading ports all over the Middle East. In the Western hemisphere, they were called Puni but did not usually answer to that name. Furthermore, he said they were a Mediterranean people. Yet, in studying Hindu history, I discovered that they also existed in Central Asia and India. But there, they were called Pani. Not even in India did they call themselves Pani.



In his brief but enlightening little book, The Rig Veda ñ a History, Bengali historian, Rajeswar Gupta, stated: ìÖin ancient times the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea were connected together by a strait through which the Phoenicians and Aryan trading ships entered the MediterraneanÖAs that passage silted up the connection between India and Europe broke off.î (p. 4.)



Had Professor Gupta been more acquainted with the Turkish-related nations in Central Asia, he wouldíve realized that the Phoenicians and Aryans were the same people. The Phoenicians in the Middle East eventually lost their awareness of being Dravidians, separating themselves in many small city coastal states.



Even today, the Turkish peoples call themselves Ari. The forefathers of the Turkish peoples also called themselves Pancha (Five) Krishtayas (The Original Five Races of Mankind).



Like me, Professor Gupta intuited that the Phoenicians had originated in Central Asia. Herodotus, the Greek Historian, did not mention the Phoenicians as being a disorganized collection of city states, but as a single political entity. I intuited that the original Phoenicia was Anatolia (Turkey) and Bulgaria. Greece was at one time a part of Phoenicia but later broke away. Even now the Greeks are a great sea people as are the Turks. As a matter of fact, the famed Piri Reis 6000 years old map of the world was made from older Turkish maps. The Mercateur map is another example.

UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF THE TERM PANI OR PUNI

If the Panis or Punis did not call themselves by those names, what do those similar terms mean? This anomaly perplexed me because the word exists in nearly all the languages of the world, even in Meso-America. It is a fact that Panama was named after them because it was and is a passage allowing boats to cross it. To find out what the term Pani meant, I consulted the book, The Civilized Demons, the Harappans in Rig Veda, by Malati J. Shendge: ìThey participated in the international trade, taking the caravans from place to place, supplying goods according to demand by bringing them from places where they were in surplus. (p. 222.) In short, it means ìtraffic; moving from one place to another.î The same meaning is found in the Nahuatl language: pan (external location); pano; opano (crossing to the other side), etc. (See Angel Maria Garibayís Llave del Nahuatl.) Even in our English language, the prefix ìpanî means roughly the same thing: ìall-encompassing; everywhere, etc.î

THE SUMERIANS WERE TURKS.

Many people find it difficult to accept that even the Akkad or Sumerians were Turkish. The Akkads (Sumerians) were Phoenicians. known also as Kads, Khatti, etc., Originally, they were a Turkish (Kur, Tur, Tul, Tol, etc.) people from what our Bible calls Eden, the Akkadian word for the Steppes (Central Asia). Before the Great Flood, the Steppes or Eden was regarded as an earthly paradise. However, when the Great Flood inundated what are now the Altai, Tannu (Tiva, Teva, or Tuva), and Khakassia Turkish republics, the survivors had to build their civilization all over again. Many fled to what is now India, becoming Indians themselves, joining the eastern part of the Northern and southern hemisphere as a single nation.

Many of the post-flood tribes had been reduced to savagery. The Aryans or Kurs (Turks) could not rehabilitate them. A Bulgarian king, known in Indian mythology as the god of gold, good fortune and treasure, Kubera (Khyber, Kheever, or the biblical Heber) decided to banish them to Lanka. He and his followers, the Yakhus or Yakshas, thought they would thrive more peacefully in that fertile, tropical country. However, not even there would they civilize themselves. With the exception of the Mayans of Altai and some Huna (Hunnish or Mongol) tribes, most of the incorrigible nomadic tribes, called Rakshasas and Pisacas, preferred to exist in the depths of degradation.



The Kubera people were called Nagas or Chans because the snake was their emblem. According to the Ramayana, they peopled the world, taking about 10,000 years to do so. Kubera and his Yakhsas, along with the Mayans I have already mentioned, then killed as many Rakshasas and Pisacas as possible, taking the survivors to Patala.



In his book, Remedy the Frauds in Hinduism, historian Kuttikhat Purushothoma Chon mentioned the Siberian origin of the Mayans. ìMaya architects are mentioned in our epic Mahabharata. Maya people are in Siam and East Asia. There is a place called Mayyavad in Kerala. The Uttar Pradesh people have the meaning of Mayya as mother in phrases like ëGanga ki Mayya.í There is a vast area in Russian East Siberia as well as a river by name Maya.î (p. 28.)



The Cologne Sanskrit Lexicon defines the Maya as mathematicians (measurers), astronomers, military strategists, magicians, wise-men, and builders. Our Mesoamerican Mayans definitely fit this description.



Malati J. Shendge said that the Panis, Asuras, Yakshas, and Mayans were partners in a common cause.

DNA EVIDENCE OF A SIBERIAN ORIGIN OF OUR AMERICAN INDIANS.

Russian scientists have recently discovered that the DNA of people from the Siberian Khakassia and Altai regions bordering on Tuva (also known as Tannu, Tiva and Teva). The Mayans are supposed to have originated in Altai. Later, the Kubera hordes took them to Ceylon where they became a great people. To date, little research has been done on the DNA of the Tuvans. The Russian scientists believe that the people of Tuva may have even a higher DNA match with Amerindians. All that is remaining now is to test the DNA of Mayans in other Asian lands, also that of our own Mayans, the Inca Nahua, Maya, and Mayo clans, as well as that of the Mexican Yaquis (Yakhs?) and Mayo (Maya)-two tribes speaking the same language.

WHO WERE THE ASURAS?

Malati J. Shendge says that the Asura empire governed the Indus Valley (Western India): ìÖthese peoplesÖwere well-versed in agriculture, technology, engineering, sea-faring and trade and had established a control on river waters by setting up dams and irrigation canals.î (The Civilized Demons, p. 289,) Within this context, even the Phoenicians were Asuras.


WERE THESE ASURAS AND THEIR ALLIES LIGHT OR DARK-SKINNED?

That the Aryans living in the coastal lands of Western India were dark-skinned Dravidians, there is no doubt. Arrian said in his book Indica: ìThe inhabitants upon the Indus are in their looks and appearance not unlike the Ethiopians. Those upon the southern coast resemble them the most, for they are very black, and their hair is also black; but they are not so flat-nosed, nor have they woolly hair. They, who are more to the north, have a great resemblance to the Egyptians.î



A certain Hindu nationalist group has tried to convince the Hindus that the so-called ìAryan invasionî was a white Europoid lie in order to oppress non-whites. However, they cannot explain why the one hundred fifty million people living in the Turkish-related nations still call themselves Ari (Aryan). Additionally, Krishtayas claimed to be all the races of mankind.



[Right: A group of Tamils honoring my friend T. L. Subash Chandra Bose at a religious meeting. He is the man in the background, wearing a garland of flowers.]









 Dr. Polyat Kaya, a Turkish professor of historical linguistics, wrote: ìPre-Iranian culture was Turanian culture and civilization before theAryans. Indus civilization was also a Turanian culture like the Sumerian culture was. Dravidian being related to these ancient cultures ties them all together and also to Turkish. They are all agglutinative languages although historians and linguists are conditioned not to mention the name Tur/Turk.î (Istanbul allingus@hotmail.com.)



The traditional garb of Dravidian men has not changed in thousands of years. Like the ancient Assyrians, they wear long flowing skirts reaching to their ankles.



Many scholars agree that Asura was Assyria, an empire extending from West-Central Asia down to the tip of Southwestern India. If I am correct in assuming that the Dravidians were the Asuras, they are mentioned in Genesis as Ashur, son of Shem. (Genesis 10:22.)



The ancient Phoenicians claimed that they originally came from the lands alongside the ìErythean Sea.î The ìErythean Seaî is now the Arabian Ocean,î extending from Pakistan throughout all the western coast of India.

WERE THE OLMECS TURKISH?

The Olmecs or Olman were the first civilization in Meso-America. Although there are abundant physical and linguistic artifacts of their existence, only the Nahuatl-speaking tribes and the Mayans knew something about the Olmecs or Olman as a people. For certain, we know that they were Turks because Olmak and Olman are the Turkish names for Adam. Perhaps they called themselves thusly because they were the first inhabitants of Mexico.



[Right: Artistís idea of what the ancient Olmec city of La Venta looked like.]

       The Olmecs supposedly entered Western Mexico in boats, crossing the then navigable Isthmus of Tehuantepec. They first settled on the east coast of Veracruz by the river Papaloapan. The Nahuatl-speaking people couldnít pronounce ìB.î Papaloapan was probably Babalu-apan (Babylonian Crossing).



The Olmecsí Zikhari (Temple Mounts) were similar to those of the Sumerian Zigurrats and with virtually the same name: Zicualli and Zacualli. Because the Nahuatl tribes couldnít say ìL,î it was probably a dialectical version of Zigurrat: Zicuari.



 [Left: A central Asian Ziggurat with upper elevations eroded by centuries.]

 Hundreds of years after settling on the coast, they moved in to the central highlands of Mexico and as far northward as the present-day state of San Luis Potosi. Traces of them may eventually be found as far as Southwestern United States.



As they multiplied and spread out, they eventually forgot they were Olmecs and Olman. About all they could remember is that they came to America in boats: Nava or Nauvak (Nahua or Nauwak), ìship people.î



Eventually, Nauvak changed to Anauwak (no longer ship people). Even today, the Nahuatl word Anahuac means ìbetween two waters.î The Nahuatl-speaking tribes also called themselves Toltec, derived from Toltika, meaning ìSons of Tulan or Turan.î When the Spaniards arrived in Mexico, the Aztecs called them ìTules,î thinking they, too, were Turks.

                                                

[Above: Map of Tula in Siberian Russia. Did the Aztecs come from this Tula?]

They and the Sumerians prayed to the same mother goddess:

                                                 

Southern Persia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan had several different names: Sivapuri (The Region of God Shiva), Sivabhu (Sacred Land of Shiva), Sivapuni (The Purity of Shiva), and Shivulba (The Womb, Origin, or Cave of Shiva). The Pueblo Indians called their underworld or place of origin Sibapu or Sibapuni; for the Mayans, it was Shibalba, their "underworld" and place of the gods. The linguistic and functional similarities of the Hindu Sivabhu, Sivapuni, and Shivulba with the Puebloan Sibapu, Sivapuni, and the Mayan Shivalba (Xibalba) are too nearly exact to be coincidences.

[Right: The "Sumerian" Statue in Tepoztlan, Morelos.]




A Tepe was a low, steep hill surrounded by a village. The Tepe was used both as a fortress in case of attack and as a religious center honoring the villageís special deity-often a mother goddess. A few of the many hundreds of Tepes scattered over Sivabhu, even into the Middle East, are Tepe Yaya, Tepe Ya, Tepe Kilize, Tepe Liman, Tepe Catal, Tepe Godin, Tepe Cora, etc.



Mexico is the only region outside the Middle East and Central Asia, where we find hundreds of these combination protective and holy hills called Tepes. Some of these are Tepatit·n, Tuxtepec, Tepec, Tepic, Mazatepec, Tepetatas, Tepantita, Tepetzintla, Tepuste, Tepetlix, Tepetlalco, ad infinitum.



In ancient Sivabhu, the deities located at the tops of these tepes were called Yah, Yakh, Yakhu, Yaksha, Yakshi etc., meaning ìGuardian Angel.î The leading Mexican Yakshi (female guardian angel) had her sanctuary atop what is now Tepeyac (Hill of the Guardian Angel) in Mexico City. She is now the Virgin of Guadalupe.



Eventually, the non-Olmec tribes in Mexico, if there were ever any at all, copied their civilization after them. The Aztecs claimed that they had once lived in what are now the Florida Cays. When their city went under water, a sea-faring group saved them, dumping them on the Mexican mainland. In their annals, they said they adopted the civilization of the people already there.



The Nahuatl-speaking tribes and the Mayans told the Spaniards that a people called Tamoan-chan or Tamuan-chan also mixed with the Olmecs. These would be people from some part of Oceania, such as Samoa or New Zealand. (See Garibayís Llave del Nahuatl.) The word ìChanî meant ìPlace of Snakesî



In the 1950s, I visited a strange rock formation near Tepoztlan, Morelos, resembling a badly eroded Sumerian statue. Some people think it is just a natural formation, but I do not. There are other man-made formations near it, that are definitely not Aztec.

THE MAYANS WERE TAMILS.

I am now ready to return to the hypothetical voyage of Tamils to America. They probably used two types of maps. The map below-left shows Mt. Meru with petals pointing in four directions. The left petal points toward a distant land called Ketumal or Chetumal. In order to reach that land, they had to go eastward in order to avoid sailing around the tip of Africa. They knew where they were going, for they had been there before! The map below-right was their own map of the world.






The Mayans said that the land of their forefathers lay 150 days westward.



When the Tamils arrived in North America, they crossed over to what is now the Caribbean Sea, through the Isthmus of Panama (The Great Crossing). After coming out the other side, they docked in the safe harbor of Chetumal. It still bears the same name. Chetumal harbor is in Belize. Belize derives from Belisha (God Shiva).
 
[Right: Photo of Chetumal harbor in Belize.]

Later, they left Chetumal, sailing up the coast to a place reminding them of the beauty of their old home in Konkan. They dropped anchor and made their first home in America there. Not surprisingly, they decided to name their new home Kankun (Cancun). After thousands of years, the last syllable has barely changed in pronunciation.


[Left: Beach scene in Tulum, Cancun area. Right: Map showing their voyage from Chetumal to Cancun.]

When the Tamils settled in Yucat·n, they built their typical zikharis, such as those of Tikal and Palenque. At Tikal, they stained their stone monuments a reddish color, just as they had done back in the Konkan.
                     
                               
[Left: A Tikal Zikhari. Right: A Pelenque Zikhari.]

People are surprised to see stone images of elephants in Mayan country, such as the following one in Copan. It may be a reminder of the elephants in India.


[Right: Stone etching of a Hindu mahout, complete with turban, riding on the head of an elephant.]

 Some authorities, who do not agree with me that the Mayans came from abroad, think Southern Mexico once had elephants. The truth is that they worshiped a long-nosed god (Chac) or elephant, just as the Hindu Tamils worshiped the elephant-headed Ganesha in India.



Chak was the long-nosed Mayan God of thunder, lightning, rain, and crops. His elephantine trunk sprayed water on the earth. His equivalent in other parts of the world was Zeus, Dyaus, Jupiter, Ca, Jah, Ju, Jahve, Jehova Jeho, Sakh, Sagg, Sa-ga-ga, Sakko, Zagg, Zax. a.k.a. Zeus, is often depicted holding a serpentine thunderbolt and a grail, or someone is handing it to him. The Mayan Chak is equally depicted.


                                                                      The Mayan god Chac.



LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE THAT THE MAYANS WERE FROM CEYLON.

They gave several names that directly and indirectly identified Ceylon: Shilanka (Xilanca) - an ancient name of Ceylon (Zeilan-Ka).



Shikalanka (Xicalanca) - Ceylon. In Tamil, Shikalam.



Itzamna was one of their culture heroes. He claimed to have come from a western country. Isham, meaning 'Tiger, ""Land of Gold," was a Dravidian name of Ceylon. The Na in Isham-na is an honorific.



Ishbalanka (Xbalanca), another culture hero. In Tamil, it means "Shiva of Lanka." India's God Shiva was supposed to have made the footprint on top of Adam's Peak in today's Sri Lanka.



Shibalba, The Mayan underworld. This word stems From the Sanskrit Shivulba, meaning ìfrom the fountainhead of God Shiva-Mt. Meru, in India.î



Palenke (Palenque). This name derives from the Tamil Pal-Lanka, meaning "Protectorate of Lanka." Ancient Lanka was Indiaís ìAtlantis.î



The Yaxilan (Yakshilan) Mayan ruins. This name means ìThe Ceylon Yakhsî in Sanskrit.



Ceren, a name of Ceylon. Some Mayan ruins in El Salvador are called Ceren.



Lacandon, a tribe of Yucatan. India's god Kubera banished the Laks, a Tartarian Huna or Rakshasha tribe from Northern India to Ceylon, giving the country one of its many names and becoming the Lakan or Lakam people. The Don in Lacan-don derives from Dan (Tannu or Dannu?). (See the online Cologne Sanskrit and Tamil dictionaries for comparison of ancient Ceylon names with those of Mayan tribes and places.)





THE THREE PROVINCES OF ANCIENT CEYLON.

Ancient Ceylon was divided into three provinces: Maya, the central division of the island; Ruhuna (Soul of Huna Land), and Pihitee, the northernmost of the three. The Ceylonese Maya were known for their impressive astronomical knowledge, architectural marvels, temples, and irrigation ponds. (Reference: The History of Ceylon, by William Knighton, first published in Colombo Ceylon, in 1845.)



One of the names of Ceylon's cult religions was Mayon. It still exists among a few aboriginals living on the island.



Most of the Rakshasa and Pisaca bad boys were Tartarian Hunas, They came from Huna-Bhu, meaning ìHunas (Tartars) from the Sacred Land around Mt. Meru.î Many of these tribes were cannibalistic, given to intertribal fighting, practitioners of human sacrifice in their religious rites, flattened the foreheads of their babies, took scalps in battle, and observed other customs attributed to many Amerindian tribes. The Mayans remember them as the culture hero, Hunapu (Huna-Bhu?).



Had the natives of Meso-America been able to pronounce the "ST" combination, today's Yucatan would be Yucasthan (Yakhuthan?). Even today, many Mexican Indians and peasants cannot pronounce this combination. For example, instead of CÛmo est·? (How are you?), they can only say, "øCÛmo t·?"



Guatemala derives from Sanskrit Guadhaamala, meaning Guha (Cosmic Intelligence) + Dha (Serpentine) + Amala (Umbilical Cord), the Sacred Umbilical Cord Linking Western Asia and India with Meso-America. Besides the Ceylonese and Tamil tribal names Yakkha, Maya, and Lak in Maya country, there are also the Lenca and Rama tribes. The Mayan lowlands are even called Guanacaste, meaning The Western Enlightened Nagas. It is assumed that the Olmecs spoke Nahuatl because of the place-names they left behind. The Olmecs called the Maya country in Southeastern Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos (Snake Sanctuary). Snake Sanctuary was none other than the home of the Western or American Nagas.



ìOriginally, the Asuras or Nagas were not only a civilized people, but a maritime powerÖ,Kadru, the mother of serpents, compelled Garuda (the Eagle or Hawk) to serve her sons by transporting them across the sea to a beautiful land, which was inhabited by Nagas. The Asuras (Nagas) were expert navigators who possessed very considerable naval resources and had founded upon distant coasts.î (The Encircled Serpent by M. Oldfield, p. 47.)



Even today, the Mexican flag has an Eagle with a serpent in its mouth, representing the arrival of the ancient Mexicans to Meso-America. It also represents the arrival of the Meshika to what is now Mexico City.



[Right: Mexican flag.]   
                  
The Tamils and all the tribes of Meso-America, from Mexico to Panama, played the same board game: Pachesi. The Meso-Americans called it by a linguistically similar name: Patolli. (Note: CH and T are linguistically similar. LL was the only way the Renaissance Spaniards could approximate the sounds of Z and J. This proves that Patolli derived from Pachesi.) I myself saw a Patolli board game at the National Museum of Costa Rica, in San Jose.
                   

 [Above Left: Mr. Subash Bose displays an ancient Tamil Pachesi board kept as a relic in the temple of his area. The Tamils and all the tribes of Meso-America, from Mexico to Panama, played the same board game: Pachesi. Right


: The Meso-Americans called it by a linguistically similar name: Patolli. (Note: CH and T are linguistically similar. LL was the only way the Renaissance Spaniards could approximate the sounds of Z and J. This proves that Patolli derived from Pachesi.) I myself saw a Patolli board game at the National Museum of Costa Rica, in San Jose.]



BOTH THE MEXICAN INDIANS & TAMILS ATE TAMALES WITH THE SAME NAME!

The Tamils and Turks even gave some of their favorite dishes to the ancient Mexicans, and with the same names! I will name just two of them: Tamales and Corundas. The ancient Tamils were known as Tamils or Tamals. One of their favorite foods was a type of paste or filling wrapped in bamboo husk. Even in Tamil Nadu it is called Tamal. The Michoacanos have a similar triangular shaped tamal called Corunda. In Turkic it would be kur-unda (Turkic dough).



My Tamil Nadu friend, Mr. Subash Bose, pointed out to me the fact that Hindus often worship cobras and that the Mayans worshipped rattlesnakes. He said that Mayan huts look exactly like those in Tamil Nadu.



The Kuberas even gave their name to North America. The Meso-Americans told the Spaniards that North America was Quivira (Land of the Khyber People).



Most of us have heard of the Mayan holy book, Chilam Balam. Chilan or Chilam is a title of Mayan priests. Balam is the Mayan name for Jaguar. In Sanskrit, Cheilan = Ceylonese and Vyalam = tiger; lion; hunting leopard. ìJaguarî probably stems from the Sanskrit Higkara, meaning Tiger-like or ìsounding like a tiger.î



The Mayans called their ìQuetzalcoatlî Kukulcan and Gukumats. These names appear to derive directly from the Turkic language. Kuk or Gok derived from the Turkic Gog and Gok, names of ancient Turkish tribes. Ulu means ìhigh placed.î Mats derives from Masi, the Turkic word for ìMessiah.î Khan is a Turkic word for ìKing.î Therefore, Kukulcan=Gogulkhan (The Revered King of Gog.) Gukumats=Gokumasi (The Revered Gok Messiah).



The presence of Dravidian, Turkic, and Sanskrit words in America shouldnít surprise anyone, for the Aryans and Indians (Ramanaka) traveled together throughout the world. In his book, El OrÌgen de los Indios, the Spanish priest, Gregorio PÈrez, wrote that the Caribbean Indians said that their founding fathers were the Kuru-Rumani.



Some Dravidians think Sanskrit sprang from Dravidian, but my research does not indicate this. Many of the Turks also spoke Aramaic, for at one time it was more generally spoken than it is now. The Turkish linguist, Professor Polyat Kaya, states that such languages as Sanskrit, Dravidian, Hebrew, Chinese, and many others are anagrams derived from Turkish. He also said that the Mayan language derives from Turkish.



In this article, I have just presented a tiny part of the evidence in my possession, pointing to the Indian and Ceylonese origins of the Mayans. I have decided to end this article by recounting what the Jesuit priest Francisco Xavier Clavigero wrote in Volume I of his Historia Antigua de Messico (Ancient History of Mexico). Clavigero said that the Chiapaneco Mayans told him that a grandson of Noah, Votan, took people to people America. He was from the Chan (Naga or Serpent) tribe. They said that he came from the East, bringing seven groups with him. Two other leaders (Groups?) had also previously brought in settlers: Igh and Imox. He built a great city, now known as Palenque, call ìNauchan,î meaning City of the Serpents. When Noah emerged from the Ark, he and his people built their first city, calling it Nashan (The Noachide Chan).



Votan founded three tributary monarchies called Tulan, Mayapan, and Chiquimala. The ruins of Tulan are those of Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Mayapan is the Yucatan peninsula itself. I have not yet located the region of Chiquimala. Perhaps it is Guatemala or the Mayan province of Tzequil.



Like many Europoids ignorant of India and its history, Clavigero tried to place them in Cartagena, Africa, Rome, and even Spain. But he at least intuited that the early Mayan settlers were Phoenicians.



Had he been more knowledgeable about ancient India and Ceylon, he would have known that they were Ceylonese, for in Tamil, VALAM POTAM means ìPlace of Boats.î Valam Potan (Ceylon) was located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, where the trade winds are. The differences between Valum Votan and Valam Potam are trivial.



Notice the following map showing the sea and land routes of the ancient Tamils. Below it, youíll notice the words Oceanus Indicus (Indian Ocean). The ancient maps which the Spaniards used to get to America showed the same terms: Mar Indica; Oceanus Indica. From where did they obtain those maps showing that the eastern end of Oceanus Indica was America?




                         Map showing the land and sea routes of the ancient Tamils
                                     
The stone heads staring at the sea, from the shores of Easter Island, tell us a lot about the ancient sailors theyíre supposed to represent. Notice their ìheadpieces.î Could they be Tamil turbans?

                                      

                                         The stone heads of Easter Island.



SOME PARTING THOUGHTS

Many people donít know that the Mayans and Toltecs werenít the only immigrants who entered the Americas through Chetumal, the ìPlymouth Rockî of many American Indians. I can name several United States Indian tribes who also landed there. Their origin stories say so in plain words.



In view of what I have said in this article, who is better qualified to identify the origins of our American Indians? Our Europoid academics? Or the Turks, Hindus, and American Indians?



All kinds of speculations have been made, many mystical, about the ancient sea-farers known as Wotan, Woden, the German Wuotan, the Yap Island Paathan, and the Philipine Bataan. Even today, a large tribe of Pakistanis are called Pathan. Votan was never a single person. He was really a ìnation of sailors.î This ancient nation of sailors and adventurers is still with us: The Dravidian Tamils!
                               
                                                      A Tamil ship.

As with Geneís Viewzone article about the biblical Mesechs, this article will also be a chapter in an upcoming book he is preparing about the origins of our Amerindians. His latest book, What Strange Mystery Unites the Turkish Nations, India, Catholicism, and Mexico?, can also provide interested readers with some fascinating insights about the ancient world.



Reference taken from: http://viewzone2.com/ancientturksx.html

Thursday, July 8, 2010

An Introduction to the History of Tamil People

Religious Traditions of the Tamils




Prof. A. Veluppillai

1. Introduction.



The Tamils can be defined as people, having Tamil as their mother tongue. Tamil language is a member of the Dravidian/ South Indian family of languages. The four southernmost states of India- tamiz Nadu, kERaLa, karNAdaka, and Andra Pradesh- are predominantly linguistically Dravidian, each state carved out on the basis of predominance of the four major Dravidian languages. The Dravidian languages are mother tongues of about a quarter of the Indian population. Though about 80% of the speakers are found within the borders of these four South Indian states, a number of Dravidian languages have been identified in other parts of South Asia. Among the tribal languages of Central India, almost extending to the borders of Bengal, distinct from the Austro-Asiatic family of languages, many Dravidian languages have been identified. The northern reaches of this family have been located in isolated settlements in Nepal and Pakistan. The Brahui speakers are found in the hills of Baluchistan, almost on the borders of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. So, the Dravidian family of languages is a South Asian family of languages in one sense. About 22 languages are classified as belonging to the Dravidian family and on linguisic criteria, sub-division as North, Central and South Dravidian are made. Tamils alone number about 60 million people.



South India and Sri Lanka have been homelands of the Tamils, from the beginning of recorded history. The region, roughly covered by the modern states of tamiz NAdu and Kerala are identified as ancient tamizakam up to about 10th century AD. Even though some evidence exists for Tamil influence , and Tamil presence in Sri Lanka is noticeable from very early times, strong Tamil presence and influence in Sri Lanka, from about the 10th century. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Tamils migrated to some British colonies in search of employment and thus there are substantial Tamil populations in Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Fiji and South Africa. After the World War II, a movement of Tamil professionals to UK, USA, Australia and New Zealand is proceeding continuously. Due to the recent civil war type situation in Sri Lanka, many thousands of Tamils in about 20 countries, with large numbers in Canada, Germany, France, and Switzerland. Within the Nordic countries, Norway and Denmark have more Tamils than Sweden.



2. Present Situation regarding religious affiliations of the Tamils.

Hinduism, Christianity and Islam are the major religions among the Tamils in that order: Hindus are counted as forming more than 80% of the population and the other religions are reckoned to be less than 20% of the population. Some of the other religions like Jainism, Buddhism have relatively few adherents. The Tamil Christians include both Roman Catholics as well as the Protestants. The Muslims are mainly Sunni. The situation is fairly stable, only Christian missions, said to be marginally successful in making new converts. The general atmosphere is religious toleration and harmony.



The official policy of India is secularism,,,. Overall, Hinduism is neither a missionary nor an exclusive religion. To put it in a negative way, the Hindus withdraw into themselves and don't react except when they feel threatened. Many scholars have commented on the tolerant attitude of the Hindus. Some recent developments in India challenges this view. But tamiz Nadu and the Tamils, generally keep up the Tamil tradition of tolerance, There is no Hindu extremism worth mentioning among the Tamils. No serious claim is put forward that Hinduism should have special privileges, compared to other religions.



3. The Dravidian Hypothesis about the people of the Indus valley Civilization.



The Tamils have legends that their ancient history extends up to about ten thousand years, sea swallowing up their lands twice and kings establishing new capitals and fostering Tamil in three successive academies. The legend is first mentioned in the commentary of kaLavijal, which is assigned to about 8th century AD. This legend is one of the reasons- one of the excuses- for connecting up the Tamil civilization with some prehistoric ancient civilizations, whose identity and continuity poses special problems.



The records of the Indus Valley Civilization have not been satisfactorily deciphered. Material remains have been interpreted by archeologists. There cannot be finality, till a satisfactory reading of the records. Material remains are generally interpreted in the light of elements in the later Hinduism. Siva worship in the form of pacupati and NadaRajA, Sakti worship and some other deductions are made. In the 1950s, Father Heras argued for the Dravidian identity of the Indus Valley people. In the 1960s, the Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies issued many announcements, trying to establish this identity. This hypothesis is still defended seriously by Japanese Professor Noboru Karashima, President of the International Association for Tamil Research in 1994.



4. The Dravidian Identity of the Sumerians.



This is another hypothesis that is strongly advocated by certain scholars. The Sumerian records have been deciphered and material remains have been interpreted satisfactorily. Linguistic and cultural affinities between the Sumerians and the Tamils, separated by much more than a millennia, are pointed out. The late Professor A. catAcivam (A.Sathasivam) from Sri Lanka and Dr. ulakaNAtan muttarAjan (Loganathan Muttarayan) from Malaysia are examples. Eminent historians of the caliber of K.A. Nilakanda cAttiri (Nilakantta Sastri), have pointed out similarities in temple worship. A hypothesis, connecting the ancestors of the Dravidians, if not the Tamils. to the Mediterranean area, is still advocated by certain scholars.

5. A study based on the historical times.




Literary, epigraphical and archeological sources existt for the study of religious traditions of the Tamils for about 2000 years. As materials exist for such a long period of time, it is only fitting that we pay just passing attention to doubtful prehistoric connections and concentrate on the historical period. Tamil is one of the two classical languages of India, along with Sanskrit. There are Tamil literary texts and Tamil inscriptions, dated roughly, round about the beginning of the Christian era. As in most of ancient and medieval Indian texts, controversies exist on the exact dates of early Tamil records and documents. We have to be dependent on rough calculations and the most probable dates. Some distinct historical periods: (1) 100 B.C to 300 A.D.; (2) 300 A.D. to 600 A.D.; (3) 600 A.D. to 1200 A.D.; (4) 1200 A.D. to 1800 A.D.; and (5) 1800 A.D. to today.





5.1 cangkam (Academy) period.



The general designation for the early period is cangkam period, because of the strong tradition that three academies existed in the remote past and that what we get as early literary texts were those approved by those academies. The main source for the early period is literary evidence. From a study of the literary evidence, some scholars argue that the Tamil society was secular then. It is only a relative term in the sense that when compared to early North Indian literature and later Tamil literature, a distinctiveness of relative secularism can be pointed out.



Some indigenous elements of religion, peculiar to the Tamils, have been noticed in the earliest available stratum of Tamil literature. A portion of this early Tamil poetry is identified as Heroic poetry. There were three Tamil Kingdoms - cEra, cOLa and pAnhdija - and many independent chieftaincies in the early period and there were intermittent and internecine wars and battles for violent state formation. maRam (valour) was the celebrated theme.



5.1.1. Nadukal (planted stone).



The worship for the fallen brave warriors is one of the popular forms of worship in early Tamil poetry. tolkAppijam gives an elaborate description in six stages in the planting of stone, beginning with looking for a suitable stone and ending in the institution of formal worship. The portrait of the hero is often decorated with peacock feathers. Some poems refer to spears and shields erected around the planted stones. Offering of Naravam (toddy = alcohol) to the spirit of the fallen hero, represented in the planted stone, is mentioned in some verses.



5.1.2. veRijAdal (dance in ecstasy).



The dance in ecstasy is found mainly in the worship of murukan/muruku (youth, beauty, god-head). He was the god of the hilly region. The name of god or archetype was different in each landscape among the five different landscapes of the Tamil land. mAjOn (dark male)/ mAl (great one) was the god of the forest or pastoral landscape. koRRavy (lady of victory) was the goddess of ferocious appearance for the arid or waste land. vEl (spear) was the main weapon of murukan. He is a warrior-hero par excellence, but is often mentioned in akam (love) poetry, the other main theme of the earliest stratum of Tamil literature. Love-sickness of young girls in separation from their lovers seem to be generally interpreted as caused by murukan who needs propitiation in worship. The organizer and chief priest of the worship was vElan (man with spear). A number of verses refer to the sacrifice of the blood of ram and offering of toddy in the ritual. The veRijAdal occurred in koRRavy worship also, Later, murukan was considered son of koRRavy. A group dance of girls, known as kuravyjAdal, is also associated with murukan worship. Some elements of ecstasy were also involved in this dance. This dance occurred in mAjOn worship also. murukan has continued to be very popular among the Tamils and he is frequently hailed as the Tamil god. Kamil Zvelebil had chosen to name his first volume on Tamil literature, as The smile of murukan.

5.1.3. cinyc cuRAvin kOdu (pregnant Shark bone).



A solitary verse mentions this worship in the littoral region. On full moon day, fishermen and families get drunk and worship. This may be the peculiar worship of Nejtal, (littoral) landscape.



5.1.4. kanhdu (post, stone.)



This worship is often mentioned in connection with manRu (public meeting place). Lighting of lamps by women is specifically referred to in some verses. Floor of the manRu was smeared with cow-dung.



5.1.5. Influence of North Indian religious traditions.



Jaina monks lived in hills around maturai, the capittal of the pAnhdijAs and in a few other places. Early Tamil Brahmi inscriptions of round about the beginning of the Christian era, testify to this. Some kings and chieftains were responsive to Brahmins and Vedic sacrifices. Many instances can be quoted to show that beliefs in the existence of the ujir (soul), maRu piRappu (rebirth) and vAnOr ulaku (world of celestial beings) existed among the Tamils even in that early period.



5.2. Post-cangkam Period 300 A.D. to 600 A.D.



Politically in this period, the Tamils were under foreign kalabhra domination. Their political history is characterized by many historians as a dark period. Buddhism and Jainism appear to have prospered during this period. Some notable literary works are assigned to this period. The early Tamil kAppijangkaL, (epics) are assigned to this age, as for examples, cilappatikAram, a Jaina epic and manhimEkaly, a Buddhist epic. aRam, the equivalent of Sanskrit dharma , becomes the main theme of literary works. Eleven didactic works were written in this period. Their main purpose seems to be reformation of the society - bringing back values which were reversed during the Heroic Age.



tirukkuRaL the most outstanding work in Tamil, belongs to this period. This sets the tone of didactic works. According to Albert Schweitzer's evaluation in his book, Indian Thoughts and its Development, tirukkuRaL represents a synthesis of much of the best in Indian thought up to that time with a positive approach to life. The positive approach to life , also called life-affirmation, seems to owe its influence to the literary traditions of the Academy period. varnAcirama dharma, the central concept of the Brahminical religion, prescribing different rules for the four-fold castes and for the four stages of human life, has not even been mentioned in this work. This work is of universal appeal. The Tamil society never had the varnha system. There was no cattiryjAs, and the vycijAs. The ruling kings and their ancestors, were sometimes eulogized and flattered as the cattirijAs, but there was no consequent development from this position. The non-Brahmin high caste Tamils resented the term - cUttirAs, the name of the fourth caste. So, what we get in the Tamil works, equivalent to the Sanskrit dharmasastras, is sAmAnija dharma applicable to every human being. Religious affiliation of the author is not known.



ThiruvaLLuvar, the author, has kept himself clear of external trappings of different religions. The Hindus, the Jains, and the Buddhists have claimed this work as their own. Many Christian missionaries and British administrators have praised this work, even tracing Christian influence in the work. This work, consisting of 1330 verses, has been translated into many languages. Other didactic works, follow the lead by tirukkuRaL. The authors are identified as Jaina or Brahminical, mainly by their invocation verses. Otherwise, there are no deep differences in the contents of these works. NAladijAr the second most important work with 400 verses, ascribed to Jaina authorship and with a noticeable slant to life-negation, had been translated into English by G.U. Pope almost a century ago. tirukkuRaL and NAladijAr can be said to constitute the ethical core of the religious traditions of the Tamils. It is important to note here that varnAcirama dharma had not been brought into Tamil literature. Though the Tamils also developed an evil and pernicious caste system, in certain respects, quite distinct from the varnha system, in subsequent periods, that system had no sanction either in Tamil or in Sanskrit texts.



5.3. Bhakti Period 600 A.D. to 1200 A. D.



The Tamils were under the Pallava and the pAnhdija kingdoms during the earlier half of this period and under the cOLa Empire during the latter half of the same. The Tamil power reached its zenith under the cOLa Empire, which also ruled many non- Tamil communities in South India and Sri Lanka. In the history of religion and literature, this period is referred to as the bhakti period. Bhakti is a Sanskrit word, meaning devotion. This Sanskrit word and the Tamilicised form patti became popular quite late. The bhaktti poetry seems to be a curious transformation of literary traditions of the Academy period. Both akam tradition, dealing with love between man and woman and puRam tradition, dealing with heroism and generosity of warriors are combined in a strange manner and the position of man as well as hero goes to god, while the position of woman and hero-worshipper go to the devotee.

A. K. Ramanujan has recently brought out a good translation into English of some of these early poems. Though the origins of the concept of bhakti are traceable in Sanskrit sources, bhakti movement as such originated in the Tamil land. Personal relationship between the devotee and the god was its main characteristic, and worship became a fervent personal experience in response to divine grace. Religion for the devotees is no longer a matter of contemplation of a transcendent, impersonal absolute, but of ecstatic response to an intensely personal experience. This leads to a profound sense of the devotee s own shortcomings and to a trustful recourse to the god s forgiveness, with the whole personality being surrendered to the deity. It is this position which inspired the scholar - missionary G. U. Pope's evaluation - which seems to be somewhat superficial - of this religion as the religion, closest to Christianity, among Indian religions. Norman Cutler has worked on the poetics of Tamil devotion.



The vedic religion - the Brahminical religion - becomes a popular religion of the Tamils, through the bhakti movement. The Sanskrit sources contributed another important element for this religion. This religion owes a massive debt to the Sanskrit purAnhAs and epics. The temple rituals, prescribed in the Sanskrit AkamAs, became very important. From the very beginning, sectarian differences are noticeable, may be because of the influence of purAnhAs. Saiva and Vaishnava movements were presented to the Tamil people as Tamil religions This was made possible by religious synchronism. murukan becomes identified with Skanda and kArttikEja and related to Siva as a son, koRRavy becomes identified with umA, Siva's consort and as murukan s mother, and mAjOn becomes identified with Vishnu. Saivism is the form of Hinduism, very popular among the Tamils.



The Saiva movement was relatively more involved in religious conflicts and controversies. Saint Appar, a convert from Jainism to Saivism, converted the Pallava ruler from Jainism to Saivism. His poetry seems to be a strange mixture of Jaina world-view and Siva bhakti. Even though he expresses his regret for having wasted much of his life as a Jaina monk, his poetry seems to be a form of synchronism between Jainism and Saivism. The Jaina world-view and Jaina didactic works become acceptable to the Saivites. Saint Campanthar, a younger contemporary of saint Appar, converted the pAnhdija ruler from Jainism to Saivism.. He defeated the Buddhists in another controversy. As a Brahmin, he was a champion of Vedic religion against the Jains and the Buddhists. There are plenty of polemical references about the Jains and the Buddhists in his bhakti poetry. Saint Manikkavasagar was also said to have defeated the Lankan Buddhists in a controversy, but there is no trace of polemics in his compositions.



For about a millennium, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism were the three important religions among the Tamils. The triangular contest for the loyalty of the Tamils led to the growth of polemical literature to which adherents of all religions contributed. The Buddhist contribution is seen in the manhimEkaly and the kunhdalakEci, the Jaina contribution in the NIlakEci and the Saiva contribution in the civagnAnacittijAr. But overall, conflicts are rare, especially after Hinduism consolidated its position. The Saiva or Vaishnava rulers, were generally generous to all the Hindus, irrespective of their personal inclinations and also patronized the Jaina and Buddhist religious establishments of their subjects.



A very important text for Tamil Saivism is the periya purAnham, the Saiva hagiology of 63 NajanmAr, (saint lords), all of whom lived in South India and attained heaven through their bhakti to Siva. This work influenced vIra Saivism of Karnataka. Saint Manikkavasagar's devotional poems are acknowledged as the most moving in Tamil literature. G. U. Pope brought a translation of the tiruvAcakam into English. almost a century ago. Glenn Yocum has published a study of tiruvAcakam recently. The devotional poems of Saint cuNtarar, numbering about a tthousand verses, had been translated by David Shulman recently. The Twelve Sacred Books of the Tamil Saivas were complete in the 12th century A.D. For the vast majority of the Tamil Saivites, the basic works of their religion are these Twelve Sacred Books. They don't look to any Sanskrit work for guidance.



The Vaishnava bhakti movement was dominated by twelve AzvArs - those who contemplate deeply on Vishnu. They were authors of tivvijapirapaNtam (sacred composition) of four thousand verses. Compared to the saiva devotional poems, the Vaishnava devotional poems make greater use of akam tradition and less of puRam tradition of the classical period. Friedhelm Hardy had brought out a fine publication recently on the history of this movement. Some important saints are AdAL, kulacEkarar, tirumangky and NammAzvAr. The works of the last one are very important and are sometimes referred to as Tamil Vedas. Though less influential in Tamil land, the Vaishnavite bhakti movement exerted great influence throughout India, during the later periods.



The temple worship seems to be a prominent feature from the beginning of the bhakti movement. Temples, built of durable material, first rock-cut and then made of stone, made their appearance from the 8th century. Huge stone temples were built by the cOLa Emperors and their successors throughout tamizNAdu. The temples became the centres, around which many aspects of life of the people were organized. Architects and sculptors were needed in the construction activities. Music, dance, and drama were patronized by the Hindu temples. These temples were generally rich, having been owners of land other forms of wealthy. They employed people and helped them in times of distress. The big temples are still great pilgrim centres to which the Tamil Hindus from all over the world yearn to visit. Most of the big temples in tamiz Nadu have myths of their own. David Shulman has made an interpretation of these myths recently. The big temples are the main attraction for the modern tourists in tamiz NAdu.



5.4. Age of Religious Philosophy. 1200-1800 AD.



The beginnings of philosophical speculations in India are traced to the Upanishads, which originated in North India and which are in Sanskrit. Buddhism dominated the philosophical field for many centuries and South India began to make significant contributions. The definitely identifiable contribution from tamizNAdu can be said to start from the 8th century A.D. Many religious philosophical doctrines of South Indian origin have been written in Sanskrit, may be because that language was the lingua-franca throughout the South Asian sub-continent in that age. In the eighth century, Sanskrit the propounder of Advita (monoism) hailed from Kerala, a part of ancient Tamil land. His Vedanta philosophy assimilated much of the world-view of the Buddhists and gave it a new twist. He is said to have toured throughout the sub-continent and engaged in debates with the Buddhists. What he had taken over from Buddhism is said to have helped him to win over large number of adherents of Buddhism which was already in decay in India at that time.



In the eleventh-twelfth centuries, Ramanuja, the propounder of (Visistadvita-qalified monoism) hailed from the present tamizNAdu. He was strongly influenced by the Vaishnava bhakti literature, based on the Puranic religion. He was better received in Karnataka than in tamiz Nadu. Ramanuja wrote in Sanskrit, so his impact among the Tamils is relatively limited. The history of Vaishnavism in tamizNAdu becomes a little complicated as the later Vijayanagar Emperors and the Nayak kings who were mainly Telugu origin gave it sustenance. They patronized Sanskrit and gave importance to Sanskrit sources. Soon, there was a schism in tamizNAdu Vaishnavism into vadakaly, (northern school) and tenkaly, (southern school) sects. The southern school, looks mainly to the Tamil Vaishnava texts for inspiration.



The thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries saw the appearance of the fourteen works of Saiva Siddhanta philosophy in Tamil.The basic Tamil work is civagnanapOtam. There is still a big controversy on whether this work is a translation of twelve aphorisms from an obscure or unattested portion of (Rauravagama). Saiva Siddhanta is a South Indian religion, found among the Tamils only. Besides the canonical fourteen works, there are subsidiary works and commentaries in Tamil only. Agamas are accorded a special status while the Vedas only a general status as basic works to the philosophy. The importance given to the Agamas makes South Indian Saivism, a distinctive form of Hinduism, in some respects. The Tamils try to derive the basic framework of the system from their own Twelve Sacred Books.



The development of many philosophical schools led to development of sectarian conflicts and later attempts to patch them up, especially by mystic poets like Saint tAjumAnavar in the 18th century and Saint IrAmalingkar in the 19th century. camaracam, (harmony) becomes the main theme. The former praises the CLEVER cittar, (poets of powers) who found harmony between Vedanta and Siddhanta. The latter founded cutta camaraca canmArkka cangkam, a Society for Religious Wisdom of Pure Harmony.



5.5. Modern Period.



Islam and Christianity are important minority religions in this period. Islam came to Tamils in two ways. Arab traders intermarried with local people and built up a community, who now speak Tamil or Malayalam. Muslim invaders from the North had temporary success in the South and their descendants speak Urdu. As in Vaishnavism, there is some split in the attitude of the Muslims towards Tamil. Many of them are proud to claim Tamil as their language and they have made substantial contributions to the development of Tamil for more than six hundred years.



The Syrian Christian community, in the West coast, claims that they were the descendants of native converts of the Apostle Saint Thomas, from the first century A.D. They have preserved some copper plates, which according to them, were received by Saint Thomas from native rulers of his time. Modern epigraphists have dated the these plates in the ninth and the thirteenth centuries. It is now clear that this community is enjoying certain privileges in Kerala at least from the 9th century. Like the Christian trading community, a small Jewish trading community also in the West coast, gained privileges from the native Hindu rulers in the 10th century, as testified by a copper plate in the possession of their descendants. Roman Catholicism was introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th century. Protestantism was introduced by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British ruled over the entire Tamil homeland for 11/2 centuries - roughly from 1800 to 1950. Westernization and Modernization are going on, especially from the beginning of British rule and they are powerful forces even now. Christian missionaries have been very active and have considerable success in proselytisation. There was again Tamil polemical literature, reflecting a triangular contest among the Hindus, the Roman Catholics and the Protestants, especially between 1850 and 1925.



As for Jainism and Buddhism, the former continues to flicker, while the latter disappeared completely and has taken a new birth recently. Its rebirth is as a religion of protest, as a religion of the down-trodden. The people who became underprivileged and untouchable in the Hindu society felt that even Islam and Christianity could not bring them salvation and chose to accept Buddhism, on the advice of the late Dr. Ambedkar, their leader. Only a section of the underprivileged community called Dalits in India became converts. Their problem of integration into the rest of the population cries for solution.



The appeals to fundamentals of Brahminical Hinduism, as it is understood in North India, do not seem to have its echo among Tamils, because of the character of Hinduism in tamizNAdu. A few months ago, Prof. Saraswathy Vijayavenugopal, a folklorist from Madurai University in South India, in a lecture in Uppsala, made the observation that there seem to be many folk religions among the Hindu Tamils. Synchronization - continuing synchronism of different religions - seems to be a living process within what is called Hinduism among Tamils. The influence of political Hinduism, exemplified by Bharatiya Janata Party and Vishva Hindu Parishad, which champion Brahminical values, is negligible among Tamils.

The last half century in tamizNAdu is dominated by a powerful socio-political Dravidian movement, against North Indian influences, including Sanskrit and Hindi domination, but particularly Brahmin domination and oppression. among the Tamils in South India. Though the movement is split into many political groups. of which two are the two dominant political parties of tamizNAdu, there are still no indications that parties which don't subscribe to the ideology of the Dravidian movement can make headway in tamizNAdu. A small Brahmin community at the top is very vulnerable. Christians, Muslims, Buddhists and Jains find comfort in identifying themselves with the vast majority of the Hindus in the Dravidian movement. A kind of secularism is fostered as the ideology of the movement. tirukkuRaL is held up as the embodiment of Tamil Culture. The classical Cangkam period literature is idealised as the literature of the Golden Age of the Tamils.

Thanks to Prof. A. Veluppillai
 
Reference taken from : http://tamilelibrary.org/teli/tamil.html